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  • malignant
  • As with most epithelial cancers, physical irritation has been associated with increased risk of malignant transformation of the urothelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1973 WHO grading system for TCCs (papilloma, G1, G2 or G3) is most commonly used despite being superseded by the 2004 WHO grading (papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential [PNLMP], low grade, and high grade papillary carcinoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these cases, untreated survival usually amounts to only a few months, and survival with current radiation and chemotherapy treatments may extend that time from around a year to a year and a half, possibly two or more, depending on the patient's condition, immune function, treatments used, and the specific type of malignant brain neoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery may in some cases be curative, but, as a general rule, malignant brain cancers tend to regenerate and emerge from remission easily, especially highly malignant cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma, or RMS, is an aggressive and highly malignant form of cancer that develops from skeletal (striated) muscle cells that have failed to fully differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • tract infections
  • The most frequent initial symptom is haematuria which occurs when the urachal tumour has penetrated the bladder wall, but mucinuria (mucin in the urine), local pain or swelling, recurrent local or urinary tract infections and umbilical discharge can (but is not always) be seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung cancer
  • Retrospective data suggests that plasma level of alpha 1 acid glycoprotein is associated with the outcome of docetaxel based therapy in non small cell lung cancer patients. (knowcancer.com)
  • gastric cancer
  • However, in Japan they represent a much higher percentage of malignancies in the ovary (almost 20%) due to the increased prevalence of gastric cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • A missed cancer diagnosis would be highly relevant to a lawsuit, as neglecting to administer proper treatment would cause the cancer to develop into a worsening condition. (forensisgroup.com)
  • All these symptoms are non-specific and can also arise with a range of problems other than cancer, and a diagnosis can only be made following confirmatory investigations such as computed tomography (CT) scans, laparotomy and/or a biopsy of the ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of urachal cancer can be difficult and usually requires a multidisciplinary approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • spinal
  • Urinary retention, which is a common complication of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), though it can also be caused by other types of urinary tract obstruction, nerve dysfunction, tethered spinal cord syndrome, constipation, infection and certain medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Neoplasms are mosaics of different mutant cells with both genetic and epigenetic changes that distinguish them from normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may also acquire new genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the process of cellular reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • While many of the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in neoplasms are probably neutral evolution, many have been shown to increase the proliferation of the mutant cells, or decrease their rate of death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • The development of targeted therapeutic strategies based on human cancer gene therapy is an attractive approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on early studies of our group and others, the transcriptional regulatory sequences of the H19 and IGF2 genes emerged as candidates for cancer targeted therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunotherapy and targeted therapy have improved the outlook for metastatic RCC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often the tumor will regrow from those resistant cells, the patient will relapse, and the therapy that had been previously used will no longer kill the cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers hypothesized that cancer evolves in a sequence of chromosomal mutations and selection and that therapy may further select clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph
  • This study uses an agent called Ferumoxytol to identify lymph nodes that might be involved by cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Common areas to which the cancer may spread include the lining of the abdomen, lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Single promoter vectors expressing diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA) under the control regulation of IGF2-P4 or H19 regulatory sequences (IGF2-P4-DTA and H19-DTA) were previously successfully used in cell lines, animal models and recently in human patients with superficial cell carcinoma of the bladder (treated with H19-DTA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However this targeted medicine approach could be limited, as not all cancer patients express high levels of H19. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some patients are given mitomycin into the bladder either as a one-off dose in the immediate post-operative period (within 24 hrs) or a few weeks after the surgery as a six dose regimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In such patients, a bowel loop is often used to create either a "neo-bladder" or an "ileal conduit" which act as a place for the storage of urine before it is evacuated from the body either via the urethra or a urostomy respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fourth IRSG study found that 23% of patients were diagnosed in time for a complete resection of their cancer, and 15% had resection with only minimal remnants of the diseased cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • Urinalysis can also involve MC&S microscopy, culture and sensitivity Urodynamic tests evaluate the storage of urine in the bladder and the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic
  • Somatic evolution is important in the process of aging as well as the development of some diseases, including cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early mathematical modeling of cancer, by Armitage and Doll, set the stage for the future development of the somatic evolutionary theory of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Armitage and Doll explained the cancer incidence data, as a function of age, as a process of the sequential accumulation of somatic mutations (or other rate limiting steps). (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances
  • Advances in cytogenetics facilitated discovery of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasms, including the Philadelphia chromosome in chronic myelogenous leukemia and translocations in acute myeloblastic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • The causes of diseases of the body are common to the urinary tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urachal cancer was mentioned by Hue and Jacquin in 1863 followed by an elaborate work by T. Cullen in 1916 about diseases of the umbilicus, while C. Begg further characterized urachal cancer in the 1930s. (wikipedia.org)
  • congenital
  • PAX gene deficiencies can result in development defects called Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, RMS has been correlated with familial cancer syndromes and congenital abnormalities including neurofibromatosis type 1, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, and Costello syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Where the cancer has not metastasised (spread to other organs) or burrowed deeper into the tissues of the kidney, the five-year survival rate is 65-90%, but this is lowered considerably when the cancer has spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer is a classic example of what evolutionary biologists call multilevel selection: at the level of the organism, cancer is usually fatal so there is selection for genes and the organization of tissues that suppress cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • The changed T cells used in this study will be the subject's own T cells that have been genetically changed with the aim of attacking and destroying cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to test the safety of genetically changed T cells and find out what effects, if any, they have in subjects with urothelial, melanoma or head and neck cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A voiding cystogram is a functional study where contrast "dye" is injected through a catheter into the bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The wall of the bladder is lined with cells called transitional cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a Fellow in biomedical research at a cancer center, my research concerned the identification of human hematopoietic cytookines, characterization of their activities in normal and leukemic cells and bone marrow, and application of these findings to the development of a cell culture system for the sustained in-vitro propagation of human myeloid leukemia cells and the testing of those cells for their sensitivity to differentiation agents and cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs. (forensisgroup.com)
  • See Hallmarks below) Cells in neoplasms compete for resources, such as oxygen and glucose, as well as space. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, a population of mutant cells, called a clone, can expand in the neoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the level of the cell, there is selection for increased cell proliferation and survival, such that a mutant cell that acquires one of the hallmarks of cancer (see below), will have a competitive advantage over cells that have not acquired the hallmark. (wikipedia.org)