• gene
  • One of the main regulators of gene expression in fat is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), which is a fatty acid- and eicosanoid-dependent nuclear receptor that plays key roles in the development and maintenance of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • The interaction of glucose and lipogenic gene expression is assumed to be managed by the increasing concentration of an unknown glucose metabolite through the activity of glucokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this gene is regulated by glucocorticoids, retinoic acid and insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mature protein encoded by the PDK4 gene contains 294 amino acids in its sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression promoted by a diet of fat and glucose, as well as high levels of inflammation related cytokines found in the obese, can result in cells that "produce fewer and smaller mitochondria than is normal," and are thus prone to insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • Of the genes distinctly responsive to CR, 17 related to carbohydrate metabolism and glucose transport, including glucose transporter (GLUT) 4. (hindawi.com)
  • Isomaltulose is a disaccharide carbohydrate composed of glucose and fructose linked by an alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond (chemical name: 6-0-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose). (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether a carbohydrate becomes available to the body largely depends on its digestion, absorption, and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting steady and sustained energy supply to the body from isomaltulose is reflected in the shape of the blood glucose response, which demonstrates the slow and sustained release of energy from this dietary carbohydrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slow digestion and distal absorption of carbohydrate from isomaltulose contributes to the low blood glucose response to isomaltulose ingestion and to the associated low insulin release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones
  • Hormones that control adipose tissue lipolysis affect circulating concentrations of fatty acids, these in turn control the fuel selection in muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic obesity leads to increased insulin resistance that can develop into type 2 diabetes, most likely because adipose tissue (especially that in the abdomen around internal organs) is a source of several chemical signals, hormones and cytokines, to other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "glucocorticoid" derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • With this in mind, the physiology of starvation has been studied as a model of semiacute lipid exposure but also, perhaps as a consequence, as a model to study the pathophysiological interference of lipids with glucose metabolism and associated insulin resistance. (physiology.org)
  • VLDL particles are secreted directly into blood, where they mature and function to deliver the endogenously derived lipids to peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon entrance of the cell, fatty acids can be converted to different types of lipids for storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers claim that obesity has protective effects against lipotoxicity as it results in extra adipose tissue in which excess lipids can be stored. (wikipedia.org)
  • FRUCTOSE
  • Glucose will be degraded though glycolysis until fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is broken down to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like sucrose, isomaltulose can be digested to glucose and fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, while in sucrose the glucose is linked to the anomeric carbon of the fructose (an α-1,2 linkage), in isomaltulose the linkage is to the 6 carbon (α-1,6), making isomaltulose a reducing sugar, unlike sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The products of isomaltulose digestion are glucose and fructose, which enter blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • In other words, it can regulate fatty acid concentration in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong activity in glyceroneogenesis will induce the re-esterification of fatty acid which will result in decrease of fatty acid concentration in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the cell surface, GLUT4 permits the facilitated diffusion of circulating glucose down its concentration gradient into muscle and fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate cannot diffuse back out of cells, which also serves to maintain the concentration gradient for glucose to passively enter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity
  • Both adipose tissue deficiency (lipodystrophy, lipoatrophy) and adipose tissue excess (obesity) have deleterious effects and constitute major medical problems and socioeconomic burdens all around the world today. (nature.com)
  • An imbalance in glucose intake and energy expenditure has been shown to lead to both adipose cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which lead to obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the Glut4 promoter revealed that, relative to the DIO controls, CR significantly increased histone 4 acetylation, suggesting epigenetic regulation may underlie some of the differential effects of CR versus EX on the adipose transcriptome. (hindawi.com)
  • humans
  • However, a recent profusion of studies in functional imaging and molecular biology has demonstrated that BAT is a functionally active tissue in adult humans [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • substrate
  • In fact, some early FDG-PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) scans noted "tumor-like" substrate uptake in the regions suggested to contain BAT [ 5 , 7 , 8 ] (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • The cycle controls fuel selection and adapts the substrate supply and demand in normal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inadequate available glucose substrate can lead to hypoglycemia, fetal growth restriction, preterm delivery, or other problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Optimum AdPLA activity occurs in relatively basic conditions, between pH 7 and 9, to facilitate formation of a histidine-water complex and subsequent fatty acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal lipotoxicity occurs when excess long-chain nonesterified fatty acids are stored in the kidney and proximal tubule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Most studies have shown relatively little difference in the fatty acid composition of the various fat stores including fat in serum [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many insulin sensitizing drugs (namely, the thiazolidinediones) used in the treatment of diabetes activate PPARG as a means to lower serum glucose without increasing pancreatic insulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that these fatty acids are delivered to the kidneys via serum albumin. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoprotein
  • Severe mutations that cause LPL deficiency result in type I hyperlipoproteinemia, while less extreme mutations in LPL are linked to many disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipocyte
  • In the context of low adiposity, insulin activates signaling through the insulin receptor, resulting in translocation of the glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) to the cell membrane to increase glucose uptake into the adipocyte [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Adipocyte hypotrophy was attributed primarily to reduced triacylglyceride content in WAT from lipolysis, while adipocyte differentiation did not play a role in reduced adipose tissue despite the effects of prostaglandins on adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, marrow adipose tissue response to exercise approximates that of WAT exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as MAT volume as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone stained with the lipid binder osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Adipose tissue is not an inert cell mass contributing only to the storage of fat, but a sophisticated ensemble of cellular components with highly specialized and complex functions. (nature.com)
  • When the storage capacity of non-adipose cells is exceeded, cellular dysfunction and/or death result. (wikipedia.org)
  • When insulin binds to the insulin receptor, it leads to a cascade of cellular processes that promote the usage or, in some cases, the storage of glucose in the cell. (wikipedia.org)