• vitro
  • Using real-time cellular impedance measurements, we studied the effects exerted in vitro by low concentrations of DON (0.37-1.50 μM), relevant for mycotoxin-contaminated food, on the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells presenting a tumorigenic phenotype. (mdpi.com)
  • A 1.5 μM concentration of DON maintained cell adherence of non-proliferating Caco-2 cells, whilst arresting the growth of actively proliferating cells compared with control Caco-2 cells in vitro . (mdpi.com)
  • Manda G, Mocanu MA, Marin DE, Taranu I. Dual Effects Exerted in Vitro by Micromolar Concentrations of Deoxynivalenol on Undifferentiated Caco-2 Cells. (mdpi.com)
  • 2 Finally, we confirmed this relationship between intestinal PCSK9 and apolipoprotein B secretion in vitro in differentiated human Caco-2 cells by showing that adenoviral PCSK9 overexpression or silencing of PCSK9 with targeted SiRNA led to a significant increase or reduction of apolipoprotein B secretion, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses, which only replicate in living cells, are studied in the laboratory in cell or tissue culture, and many animal virologists refer to such work as being in vitro to distinguish it from in vivo work in whole animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro diagnostics refers to a wide range of medical and veterinary laboratory tests that are used to diagnose diseases and monitor the clinical status of patients using samples of blood, cells, or other tissues obtained from a patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) also known as Intestinal-type fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FABP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • HNF-1 protein is present in clear cell carcinoma of ovary In humans, mutations in HNF1A cause diabetes that responds to low dose sulfonylurea agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caveolin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAV2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chimpanzee and human CYP3A4 are highly conserved in metabolism of many ligands, although four amino acids positively selected in humans led to a 5-fold benzylation of 7-BFC in the presence of the hepatotoxic secondary bile acid lithocholic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukotriene B4 receptor 2, also known as BLT2, BLT2 receptor, and BLTR2, is a Integral membrane protein that is encoded by the LTB4R2 gene in humans and the Ltbr2 gene in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacology
  • prevents high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells," European Journal of Pharmacology , vol. 566, no. 1-3, pp. 1-10, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Later chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole organisms to identify substances that have a desirable therapeutic effect in a process known as classical pharmacology. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Comparative effects of cellulose and soluble fibers (pectin, konjac glucomannan, inulin) on fecal water toxicity toward Caco-2 cells, fecal bacteria enzymes, bile acid, and short-chain fatty acids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cell viability, concentration of ROS and reduced glutathione (GSH), and activity of antioxidant/detoxification enzymes and caspase 3 were determined.Treatment of Caco2 cells with flavanols decreased ROS production but did not affect GSH content. (chemweb.com)
  • The majority of small-molecule drug metabolism is carried out in the liver by redox enzymes, termed cytochrome P450 enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome P450 enzymes metabolize approximately 60% of prescribed drugs, CYP3A4 is responsible for about half of this metabolism, substrates include acetaminophen, codeine, ciclosporin (cyclosporin), diazepam, and erythromycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome P450 enzymes perform an assortment of modifications on a variety of ligands, utilizing its large active site and its ability to bind more than one substrate at a time to perform complicated chemical alterations in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • colon
  • The results of the current study suggested that low concentrations of DON commonly detected in food may either limit or sustain the proliferation of colon cancer cells, depending on their proliferation status and on DON concentration. (mdpi.com)
  • Soluble factors released by Lactobacillus strains can partially counteract the inhibitory action of DON on actively proliferating colon cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The objective was to evaluate the antioxidant response of colon-derived Caco2 cells to dietary flavanols.Four representative flavanols were selected: epicatechin (EC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and procyanidin B2 (PB2). (chemweb.com)
  • Shigella species generally invade the epithelial lining of the colon, causing severe inflammation and death of the cells lining the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decrease is caused by expression of a few mutant forms of ENPP7, which lack exon 4, resulting in total inactivation of the enzyme, as found in human colon and liver cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • flavonoids
  • Previously, we have proposed that repeated shuffling of flavonoids through a duo recycling scheme involving both enteric and enterohepatic recycling is the reason for extensive metabolism of apigenin ( Liu and Hu, 2002 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • human
  • 4 This suggests that the dose chosen is at least 2- to 3-fold higher than the highest physiological human PCSK9 concentration. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Encyclopedia of Drug Metabolism and Interactions provides essential support during all phases of drug development, from drug design to drug action and interaction within the human body. (wiley.com)
  • affects expression of genes involved in cell signalling, metabolism and transport in human CaCo-2 cells," International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology , vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1208-1218, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • on release of pro-inflammatory chemokines in the human monocytic cell line THP-1," BioFactors , vol. 31, no. 3-4, pp. 211-217, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Endogenous nuclear receptor-mediated UGT1A1 induction was studied using transient transfection reporter assays in primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Results indicated that induction of UGT1A1 expression was minimal in human hepatocytes treated with chrysin compared with that in HepG2 cells (1.2-versus 11-fold, respectively). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Subsequent experiments to determine whether the differential response was due to its metabolic stability revealed strikingly different elimination rate constants between the two cell systems (half-life of 13 min in human hepatocytes versus 122 min in HepG2 cell suspensions). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Further study demonstrated that UGT1A1 mRNA expression could be induced in human hepatocyte cultures by either increasing the chrysin dosing frequency or by modulating chrysin metabolism, suggesting that the differential induction observed in hepatocytes and HepG2 cells was due to differences in the metabolic clearance of chrysin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sequence and detailed organization of the human caveolin-1 and -2 genes located near the D7S522 locus (7q31.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP3A4 promotes the growth of various types of human cancer cell lines in culture by producing (±)-14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids which stimulate these cells to grow, The cytochrome P450 is also reported to have fatty acid monooxgenase activity for metabolizing arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytoestrogens were first observed in 1926, but it was unknown if they could have any effect in human or animal metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella uses a type-III secretion system, which acts as a biological syringe to translocate toxic effector proteins to the target human cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • These predictions are supported by a series of studies from our laboratory during the past few years investigating the effect of transporter inhibition and induction on drug metabolism. (springer.com)
  • The inhibition of fecal water-induced DNA damage in Caco-2 cells was greater for the pectin and inulin diets than for the cellulose and KGM diets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HepG2
  • In HepG2 cells, apigenin was also metabolized rapidly via UGT1A1 (Galigatovic et al. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Suspension or plated cultures of primary hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cell lines (HepG2, HepaRG) can be used to study and quantify metabolism of chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • induction of increased production of inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins and components of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling accumulation of iron and associated oxidative stress inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 and increased estrogen responsiveness (primarily in breast) impairment of retinoic acid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol consumption probably increases the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus by promoting the accumulation of cell divisions in the stem cells that maintain these tissues in homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • This enables Hp to grow as microcolonies adhered to the host cell surface even in conditions that do not support growth of free-swimming bacteria. (biomedsearch.com)
  • liver
  • Although CYP3A4 is predominantly found in the liver, it is also present in other organs and tissues of the body, where it may play an important role in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolites
  • Gut Microbiota Metabolites of Dietary Lignans and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Investigation in Two Cohorts of U.S. Women. (cambridge.org)
  • When metabolites are pharmacologically inert, metabolism deactivates the administered dose of parent drug and this usually reduces the effects on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • These messenger ligands are any one of a range of structurally different arachidonic acid metabolites made and released by nearby cells to act as paracrine signals for coordinating responses between cells or autocrine signals for modulating their parent cells' responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • For example, microorganisms or cells can be studied in artificial culture media, and proteins can be examined in solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein purification involves the isolation of a specific protein of interest from a complex mixture of proteins, often obtained from homogenized cells or tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases that catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids, and other lipids components. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Biological validation of coenzyme Q redox state by HPLC-EC measurement: relationship between coenzyme Q redox state and coenzyme Q content in rat tissues," FEBS Letters , vol. 578, no. 1-2, pp. 53-57, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999). "Flotillins/cavatellins are differentially expressed in cells and tissues and form a hetero-oligomeric complex with caveolins in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • investigators
  • In that article, Rashid et al stated that few investigators have characterized the functional importance of PCSK9 in the small intestine and its regulatory role on triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • enzyme
  • The participation of HNF-1α in glucose metabolism and diabetes has been reported, including the involvement in GLUT1 and GLUT2 transporter expression in pancreatic β-cells and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene expression in pancreatic islets. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Second, although the authors stated that they added a physiological dose of PCSK9 on Caco-2 cells, plasma circulating PCSK9 mean concentration values were estimated to range from 80 to 4000 ng/mL, depending on the population screened and the type of anti-PCSK9 used in ELISA assays. (ahajournals.org)
  • Boffetta and Hashibe list plausible mechanisms as including: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde increased oestrogen concentration a role as solvent for tobacco carcinogens production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species changes in folate metabolism Individuals who both smoke and drink are at a much higher risk of developing mouth, tracheal, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • in plasma and erythrocytes: comparison of antioxidant levels in healthy probands after oral supplementation and in patients suffering from sickle cell anemia," Clinica Chimica Acta , vol. 326, no. 1-2, pp. 155-161, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • mice
  • 2 Using the lymph duct cannulation method, we also showed that PCSK9-deficient mice have reduced intestinal apolipoprotein B production compared with wild-type mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • synthesis
  • ACC1 is found in the cytoplasm of all cells but is enriched in lipogenic tissue, such as adipose tissue and lactating mammary glands, where fatty acid synthesis is important. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions
  • This six-volume work covers both preclinical and clinical aspects of drug metabolism and interactions. (wiley.com)
  • By collecting and reviewing the current literature in the field in one expertly organized work, this encyclopedia is the ideal place to begin researching any question involving drug metabolism and interactions. (wiley.com)
  • By reviewing and contextualizing the current literature, the authors offer new perspectives on our current state of knowledge as well as future directions for research in drug metabolism and interactions. (wiley.com)
  • The Encyclopedia of Drug Metabolism and Interactions is recommended for researchers, physicians, and students at all levels. (wiley.com)
  • In a review, Pöschl and Seitz list some possible mechanisms of alcohol as a carcinogen: local effects of alcohol metabolism to acetaldehyde (which may be mutagenic at physiologically meaningful levels) induction of CYP2E1 nutritional deficiencies interactions with retinoids alcohol and methylation alcohol and immune surveillance Purohita et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal
  • on the mitochondrial function of skin fibroblasts from Parkinson patients," Journal of the Neurological Sciences , vol. 220, no. 1-2, pp. 41-48, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Journal of Cell Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • To determine if the transferrin recycling pathway is involved in Hp colonization of the cell surface, we silenced transferrin receptor expression during infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One prominent cell-activating pathway involves BLT2 receptor activation of NOX2 or NOX1 with the subsequent production of reactive oxygen species which in turn activate the transcription inducing function of NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)