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  • NADH
  • ΔGf = Σ ΔGfp − ΔGfo C2H6O(Ethanol) + NAD+ →C2H4O(Acetaldehyde) + NADH + H+ Ethanol: −174.8 kJ/mol Acetaldehyde: −127.6 kJ/mol ΔGf1 = −127.6 + 174.8 = 47.2 kJ/mol(Endergonic) ΣΔGf = 47.2 kJ/mol (Endergonic, but this does not take into consideration the simultaneous reduction of NAD+. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • induction of increased production of inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins and components of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling accumulation of iron and associated oxidative stress inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 and increased estrogen responsiveness (primarily in breast) impairment of retinoic acid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • Every time stem cells divide, they become exposed to unavoidable errors associated with cell division (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication and chromosomal alterations occurring during mitosis) and also become highly vulnerable to the genotoxic activity of DNA-damaging agents (e.g., acetaldehyde and tobacco carcinogens). (wikipedia.org)
  • aldehydes
  • Endogenous aldehydes are generated during the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins as well as the biotransformation of many drugs and environmental chemicals [ 10 , 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ALDH3A1 plays a critical role in the metabolism of these aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids in mammalian cornea and saliva. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • The increased exposure to acetaldehyde in individuals with the catalytically inactive form may also confer greater susceptibility to many types of cancer. (genecards.org)
  • Boffetta and Hashibe list plausible mechanisms as including: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde increased oestrogen concentration a role as solvent for tobacco carcinogens production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species changes in folate metabolism Individuals who both smoke and drink are at a much higher risk of developing mouth, tracheal, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is a precursor of coenzymes including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which accelerates the metabolic degradation of ethanol and prevents adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inactivation by acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose metabolism
  • In addition, GK is a ratecontrolling enzyme for glucose metabolism in these two cell types that are known to play critical roles in whole-body glucose homeostasis [Chipkin, S. R., Kelly, K. L., and Ruderman, N. B. in Joslin's Diabetes (C. R. Khan and G. C. Wier, eds. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Additional evidence supporting an important role for GK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in humans was provided by the identification of patients that express a mutant form of GK with increased enzymatic activity. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • While the causes of a hangover are still poorly understood, several factors are known to be involved including acetaldehyde accumulation, changes in the immune system and glucose metabolism, dehydration, metabolic acidosis, disturbed prostaglandin synthesis, increased cardiac output, vasodilation, sleep deprivation and malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • This leads to both increased absorption and decreased gut metabolism of tacrolimus thus increasing drug levels despite the faster gut transit times. (blogspot.com)
  • We also found that when individuals - men or women - drink large amounts of alcohol chronically, there is a decrease in this ADH activity, resulting in lesser first-pass metabolism and increased blood levels for a given dose. (attcnetwork.org)
  • effects
  • Caffeine has been shown to increase the metabolism boosting effects of ephedra and with 300mg of caffeine you won't find a more powerful combination of ephedra and caffeine for ultimate ephedra diet pill. (liveleantoday.com)
  • known
  • 23andMe blog carriers of the A allele are prone to esophageal cancer , which is also known as upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) cancer , due to acetaldehyde from smoking . (snpedia.com)
  • active
  • Most wine phenols are classified as secondary metabolites and were not thought to be active in the primary metabolism and function of the grapevine. (wikipedia.org)