• reactive
  • The intent of these studies was to discern the roles of acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen, two of the major by-products of ethanol metabolism, in the G2/M cell cycle arrest. (mdpi.com)
  • Boffetta and Hashibe list plausible mechanisms as including: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde increased oestrogen concentration a role as solvent for tobacco carcinogens production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species changes in folate metabolism Individuals who both smoke and drink are at a much higher risk of developing mouth, tracheal, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADH
  • ΔGf = Σ ΔGfp − ΔGfo C2H6O(Ethanol) + NAD+ →C2H4O(Acetaldehyde) + NADH + H+ Ethanol: −174.8 kJ/mol Acetaldehyde: −127.6 kJ/mol ΔGf1 = −127.6 + 174.8 = 47.2 kJ/mol(Endergonic) ΣΔGf = 47.2 kJ/mol (Endergonic, but this does not take into consideration the simultaneous reduction of NAD+. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • induction of increased production of inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins and components of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling accumulation of iron and associated oxidative stress inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 and increased estrogen responsiveness (primarily in breast) impairment of retinoic acid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • Every time stem cells divide, they become exposed to unavoidable errors associated with cell division (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication and chromosomal alterations occurring during mitosis) and also become highly vulnerable to the genotoxic activity of DNA-damaging agents (e.g., acetaldehyde and tobacco carcinogens). (wikipedia.org)
  • aldehydes
  • Endogenous aldehydes are generated during the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins as well as the biotransformation of many drugs and environmental chemicals [ 10 , 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ALDH3A1 plays a critical role in the metabolism of these aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids in mammalian cornea and saliva. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • The increased exposure to acetaldehyde in individuals with the catalytically inactive form may also confer greater susceptibility to many types of cancer. (genecards.org)