• reactive oxygen
  • Late Pregnancy Antioxidants such as carotenoids, vitamin C, Vitamin E, and enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) can protect against reactive oxygen species that damage DNA, proteins and lipids, and result in cell senescence and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • partial pressure
  • Because oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 ) in the coronary arterioles is identical in specimens from both ventricles, whereas that of ventricular blood is 2.5-fold higher in the left ventricle than in the right ventricle, trabeculae represent a "natural laboratory" in which to examine the influence of "extravascular" PO 2 on the extent of capillarization of myocardial tissue. (rupress.org)
  • Because all specimens are supplied by coronary blood at the same oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 ), but they are situated in chambers whose ambient PO 2 differs by some 2.5-fold, trabeculae represent a naturally occurring "laboratory" in which to examine the extent to which capillarization is responsive to the PO 2 of extravascular blood. (rupress.org)
  • physiological effect of oxygen metabolisn on the total gas concentration in venous blood In diving, the oxygen window is the difference between the partial pressure of oxygen (ppO2) in arterial blood and the ppO2 in body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behnke refers to early work by Momsen on "partial pressure vacancy" (PPV) where he used partial pressures of oxygen and helium as high as 2-3 ATA to create a maximal PPV. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the larger oxygen window due to a higher oxygen partial pressure can allow the diver to decompress faster at a shallower stop at the same risk, or at the same rate at the same depth at a lower risk, or at an intermediate rate at an intermediate depth at an intermediate risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • demands
  • Interval training in severely disabled COPD patients is associated with stable metabolic demands, (23) low minute ventilation and rates of dynamic hyperinflation, and increased total exercise duration than that of constant-load exercise. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nitrogen
  • The International Space Station (ISS) requires stores of Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) to provide for atmosphere replenishment, direct crew member usage, and payload operations. (sae.org)
  • depends
  • Thus, for example, the rate of photobleaching depends on the oxygen concentration in the tissue that, in turn, may change during the treatment due to either photochemical depletion of oxygen and/or treatment-induced vascular response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The oxygen window does not increase the rate of offgassing for a given concentration gradient of inert gas, but it reduces the risk of bubble formation and growth which depends on the total dissolved gas tension. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiration
  • The measured effects were that muscles of respiration were strengthened, the heart was strengthened, blood pressure was sometimes lowered and the total amount of blood and number of red blood cells increased, making the blood a more efficient carrier of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • The allometric scaling relationships between metabolic rate and body mass derived in this study for each echinoderm class were found to vary. (biologists.org)
  • response
  • Replicative aging has been linked to the retrograde response, which is activated by an intracellular signalling pathway from the mitochondrion to the nucleus and leads to the transcription of several genes encoding for metabolic enzymes. (wiley.com)
  • Neonates have a metabolic response to cooling that involves chemical (nonshivering) thermogenesis by sympathetic nerve discharge of norepinephrine in the brown fat. (merckmanuals.com)
  • breath
  • Since only a small part of the oxygen, and virtually none of the inert gas is consumed, every exhaled breath from an open-circuit scuba set represents at least 95% wasted potentially useful gas volume, which has to be replaced from the breathing gas supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • A breath inhaled from an open circuit scuba system whose cylinders are filled with ordinary air is about 21% oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • Activating the immune system has the present and future benefit of clearing infections, but it is also both expensive in regard to present high metabolic energy consumption, and in the risk of resulting in a future immune related disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • independent
  • In vivo, trabeculae are unique in receiving oxygen from two independent sources: the coronary circulation and the surrounding ventricular blood. (rupress.org)
  • occurs
  • It is now generally considered that effects of exercise on general metabolic rate (post-exercise) are comparatively small and the greatest effect occurs for only a few hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) is widely believed to be the major cytotoxic agent involved in photodynamic therapy (PDT). (aacrjournals.org)
  • result
  • The brain is relatively poorly supplied by oxygen as a result of mild hypoventilation during the sleeping hours, and also cerebral edema may worsen during the night due to the lying position. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood flow
  • However, in an extensive series of investigations over the past two decades, H.F. Downey and co-workers have quantified striking differences in coronary blood flow and oxygen supply between the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV). (rupress.org)
  • depth
  • In normal use at constant depth, only oxygen is consumed: small volumes of inert gases are lost during any one dive, due mainly to venting of the gas on ascent. (wikipedia.org)
  • provide
  • The allometric scaling relationships presented here provide updated information for mass-dependent deep-sea echinoderm metabolic rate for use in ecosystem models, which will contribute to the study of both shallow water and deep-sea ecosystem functioning and biogeochemistry. (biologists.org)
  • represent
  • This is thought to represent the reduced osmoregulatory and metabolic costs of living in Lake Qinghai which make returning after spawning and reproduction advantageous. (wikipedia.org)
  • window
  • The oxygen window effect in decompression is described in diving medical texts and the limits reviewed by Van Liew et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • loss
  • EVA gas usage is categorized into Denitrogenation, Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) oxygen use during EVAs, and air loss gas usage. (sae.org)