• type 2 diabet
  • 2010). Specific illustrations of known phytochemical nutritional applications have been illustrated regarding their efficacy and control of hypertension and high blood pressure, which is one of the leading pandemic disease and the precursor for the incipient onset of cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and other nephritic syndromes. (igi-global.com)
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Saliva is a useful biological fluid for assaying steroid hormones such as cortisol, genetic material like RNA, proteins such as enzymes and antibodies, and a variety of other substances, including natural metabolites, including saliva nitrite, a biomarker for nitric oxide status (see below for Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide: a salivary biomarker for cardio-protection). (wikipedia.org)
  • disturbances
  • In the present review we discuss the role of inflammatory mediators that increase during sleep loss and their association with general disturbances in peripheral endothelium and epithelium and how those inflammatory mediators may alter the blood-brain barrier. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we will review (1) the inflammatory mediators that increase during periods of sleep loss and their association with general disturbances in peripheral endothelium and epithelium and (2) how those inflammatory mediators might alter the blood-brain barrier during sleep loss. (hindawi.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Here, we examine the phenomenon of synchronous hatching in turtles by assessing proximate mechanisms in an Australian freshwater turtle ( Emydura macquarii ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Despite potential differences in developmental rates, both an Australian and a North American freshwater turtle exhibit synchronous hatching through 'catch-up' mechanisms, whereby less-developed siblings within a nest simply either hatch earlier or increase development rates (independent of temperature) in response to cues from siblings [ 8 , 14 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although these factors would promote the evolution of synchronous hatching, or proximate mechanisms to detect sibling hatching or developmental cues, premature hatching would be selected against if a decrease in motor skills, relative to other siblings, results in increased mortality or risk of predation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • biological
  • One of the most curious biological phenomena in mammals is their ability to hibernate circannually, which allows them to survive unusually low body temperatures at or near freezing," said study author Takashi Ohtsu of Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology in Japan. (redorbit.com)
  • Although the functions of HP remain to be clarified, the current observations lead us to propose the involvement of the protein complex in the regulation of energy metabolism and/or biological defenses during hibernation--crucial events for adapting to the severe physiological state," Ohtsu said. (redorbit.com)
  • On the other hand, keratinocyte proliferation is a secondary biological phenomenon [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • He also designed an improved Kjeldahl apparatus which improved upon Krogh's earlier design and allowed for more rapid determination of nitrogen content in biological samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • This measurement was qualitatively interpretable in 264 consecutive patients with a large range of age, a normal or moderately increased body mass index (BMI), and no a priori coronary disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • In particular, he hypothesized that dietary saturated fat causes cardiovascular heart disease and should be avoided. (wikipedia.org)
  • apart from other unmeasured known risk factors that might affect cardiovascular disease (CVD), data had emerged soon after suggesting that sugar intake was associated with smoking, a big risk factor for CVD. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulant
  • Because atracurium undergoes Hofmann elimination as a primary route of chemodegradation, one of the major metabolites from this process is laudanosine, a tertiary amino alkaloid reported to be a modest CNS stimulant with epileptogenic activity and cardiovascular effects such a hypotension and bradycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequences
  • A detailed analysis of the phenomenon of delayed anti-anginal action revealed that PgI2-pretreatment protected against consequences of ischaemia, such as early morphological changes, early and late postocclusion and reperfusion arrhythmias due to coronary artery occlusion or ouabain intoxication. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • Its metabolic precursor L-DOPA can be manufactured, and in its pure form marketed as Levodopa is the most widely used treatment for the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary and minor metabolic pathways respectively are: Primary: L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → L-DOPA → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → p-Tyramine → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → m-Tyrosine → m-Tyramine → Dopamine The direct precursor of dopamine, L-DOPA, can be synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or directly from the non-essential amino acid tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • In pancreatic β-cells, for example, they couple the blood glucose concentration to insulin secretion, in neurones they regulate transmitter release, and in the cardiovascular system they contribute to vascular tone and the response to cardiac ischemic stress. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Archer posited that decrements in maternal metabolic control altered fetal pancreatic beta cell, adipocyte (fat cell) and myocyte (muscle cell) development thereby inducing an enduring competitive advantage of adipocytes in the acquisition and sequestering on nutrient energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • At normal doses, caffeine has variable effects on learning and memory, but it generally improves reaction time, wakefulness, concentration, and motor coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moderate doses of caffeine (around 5 mg/kg) can improve sprint performance, cycling and running time trial performance, endurance (i.e., it delays the onset of muscle fatigue and central fatigue), and cycling power output. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The liberation of histamine is a dose-dependent phenomenon such that, with increasing doses administered at the same rate, there is a greater propensity for eliciting histamine release and its ensuing sequelae. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • The team now reports evidence that the level of HPc in the brain increases at the onset of hibernation independently of changes in body temperature. (redorbit.com)
  • mammals
  • For example, the complex could moderate physiological events such as reproduction in seasonally breeding mammals and migration in birds, they said. (redorbit.com)
  • postnatal
  • Particularly, the incidence of IH in the infants with low birth weight would increase progressively over the first 4 weeks of postnatal life and reach a subsequent plateau followed by a slow decline beginning at sixth to eighth weeks. (frontiersin.org)
  • sympathetic
  • Spectral analysis of RR interval and systolic arterial pressure variabilities may provide indirect markers of the balance between sympathetic and vagal cardiovascular control. (labome.org)
  • Physiological changes can include changes in sympathetic activation or HPA activity, and immunological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Physiological - organoleptic, neural and metabolic effects. (dentistry.co.uk)
  • Tolerance to the autonomic effects of increased blood pressure and heart rate, and increased urine output, develops with chronic use (i.e., these symptoms become less pronounced or do not occur following consistent use). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] It should be noted though that these sequelae are very transient effects: The total duration of the cardiovascular effects is no more than one to two minutes, while the facial flush may take around 3-4 minutes to dissipate. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Because these effects are so transient, there is no reason to administer adjunctive therapy to ameliorate either the cutaneous or the cardiovascular effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart failure characteristically involves increased catecholamine activity on the heart, which is responsible for a number of deleterious effects, including increased oxygen demand, propagation of inflammatory mediators, and abnormal cardiac tissue remodeling, all of which decrease the efficiency of cardiac contraction and contribute to the low ejection fraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • These adaptive maternal effects lead to phenotypes of offspring that increase their fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • These protect them from the damaging effects of ice formation and falling rates of enzyme catalysis at low temperatures, and from enzyme denaturation and increased photorespiration at high temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptation
  • It was from these studies that he outlined the phenomenon of human physiological adaptation to environmental changes as a predictable event, a novel idea in a time when such things as blood pressure and resting heart rate were considered immutable. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimate
  • Though practical constraints (cost and radiation exposure) limit the routine use of CT scan to estimate individual cardiovascular risk at the population level, this study contributes to the fascinating discussion regarding the potentially causal role of fat abundance around the heart in coronary atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • adverse
  • This damage includes adverse changes in brain structure and function, such as reductions in grey matter volume in several brain regions and adverse changes in markers of metabolic integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • As hibernation factors endow animals with an incredible ability to cope under otherwise lethal conditions--ratcheting down their metabolic rate to survive on limited energy reserves and withstanding extreme cardiovascular and oxygen stresses--the candidate hormone might also pave the way toward clinical therapies that lend humans the same kind of protection, they added. (redorbit.com)
  • Even humans can maintain seasonal rhythms as exhibited by seasonal affective disorder, a recurrent depression characterized by increased sleep, overeating, and weight gain--behaviors similar to those seen in hibernators, Ohtsu noted. (redorbit.com)
  • CYP2E1 also plays a role in several important metabolic reactions, including the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde and to acetate in humans, where it works alongside alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • stroke
  • For the treatment of primary hypertension, meta-analyses of studies which mostly used atenolol have shown although beta blockers are more effective than placebo in preventing stroke and total cardiovascular events, they are not as effective as diuretics, medications inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • Until its discovery, it was known that the ingestion of fatty acids or medium-chain triglycerides increases the production of active ghrelin(13) without changes in total circulating ghrelin level, indicating that the ingested fatty acids are used for ghrelin acylation (and thus activation)(14,15). (medicina-interna.ro)
  • With the help of this method a number of antianginal and other cardiac drugs as well as their effect on hemodynamic and cardiac metabolic changes were studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • However, their study has been hindered by their rapid loss of activity in excised membrane patches (rundown), and by a second phenomenon, the d ecline of a ctivation by M g- n ucleotides (DAMN). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • K ATP channels couple the metabolism of the cell to its electrical activity and thereby play important physiological roles in multiple tissues [ 1 , 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Andreone and Giacoma (1989) speculated that newt migration into the ponds increases after rainy days, since after rainfall, newt activity is not limited by humidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recreationally, methamphetamine's ability to increase energy has been reported to lift mood and increase sexual desire to such an extent that users are able to engage in sexual activity continuously for several days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased cortisol usually acts to increase blood glucose, blood pressure, and surpasses lysosomal, and immunological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • This increase in surface area counteracts the decreased oxygen available, by allowing greater oxygen uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta blockers cause a decrease in renin secretion, which in turn reduces the heart oxygen demand by lowering extracellular volume and increasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic imbalances associated with temperature extremes result in the build-up of reactive oxygen species, which can be countered by antioxidant systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • While CYP2E1 itself carries out a relatively low number of these reactions (~4% of known P450-mediated drug oxidations), it and related enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are responsible for the breakdown of a large number of toxic environmental chemicals and carcinogens that enter the body, in addition to basic metabolic reactions such as fatty acid oxidations. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • Recent studies have improved our understanding of energy homeostasis by identifying sophisticated neurohumoral networks which convey signals between the brain and gut in order to control food intake. (biomedsearch.com)
  • human
  • In vitro studies have shown that paracrine dialogs between human adipocytes and inflammatory cells present in adipose tissue (ie, macrophage, lymphocytes, and others) promote an increased synthesis of numerous biomolecules, 4 leading to a low-grade inflammatory microenvironment. (ahajournals.org)
  • enzymes
  • His account of the phenomenon inspired the research of Jacques Monod, who later worked out a detailed mechanism for the induction of enzymes in bacteria and was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • These types of stressors tend to have a more negative effect on health because they are sustained and thus require the body's physiological response to occur daily. (wikipedia.org)
  • heart
  • An integrated phenomenon, digestion is also characterized by increases in the mass, and presumably the function, of the heart, pancreas, liver and kidneys. (biologists.org)
  • Turtles appeared to hatch at similar developmental stages, with less-developed embryos in experimental groups responding to the presence of more developed eggs in a clutch by increasing both metabolic and heart rates. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Exploratory investigations suggest that the phenomenon is not confined to the heart only, vessels and possibly other organs could be also involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • rate
  • Digestion for the Burmese python is a relatively expensive endeavor, evident by the as much as a 44-fold increase in metabolic rate and equivalent in cost to as much as 37% of the meal's energy. (biologists.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, the loss of dopaminergic neurons and degeneration should be an area of research focus to identify a therapeutic solution for metabolic change-induced PD. (frontiersin.org)
  • The low pKa of taurine's sulfonic acid group ensures this moiety is negatively charged in the pH ranges normally found in the intestinal tract, thus it improves the surfactant properties of the cholic acid conjugate. (wikipedia.org)