• proteins
  • However, increasing the area of a spheroplast tors and perhaps other integral proteins as well membrane by micropipette aspiration creates tension. (health-articles.net)
  • The pullulanase type II secretion system (T2SS) of Klebsiella oxytoca , the Pul secreton, is a prototype of a family of membrane protein complexes dedicated to the transport of folded proteins from the periplasm to the extracellular milieu ( 49 ). (asm.org)
  • The T6SS comprises 13 core proteins that assemble a large complex structurally and functionally similar to a phage contractile tail structure anchored to the cell envelope by a trans-membrane spanning stator. (jove.com)
  • In the GTP-bound form, an N-terminal amphipathic helix is exposed from a surface pocket, enhancing ARF interaction with the lipid bilayer, stabilizing membrane association of the GTPase and recruiting effector proteins. (biologists.org)
  • some GDP-bound forms of ARF and ARL proteins can, however, weakly associate with membranes ( Casanova, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • pipette
  • During a patch clamp recording, a hollow glass tube known as a micropipette or patch pipette containing an electrolyte-containing solution and a recording electrode connected to an amplifier is brought into contact with the membrane of an isolated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • The transmembrane region forms a channel through the membrane that opens into a chamber enclosed by the extramembrane portion, the latter connecting to the cytoplasm through distinct portals. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequently
  • Addition of melimine and cys-melimine initially increased membrane conduction, which subsequently falls over time. (edu.au)
  • uptake
  • In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Each subunit crosses the membrane twice through alpha-helical transmembrane segments, M1 and M2, which are interconnected by an extracellular loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • detergents
  • Enzymatic digestion of the cell wall with zymolyase , creating spheroplasts, renders the cells vulnerable to easy lysis with detergents or rapid osmolar pressure changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • vacuole
  • When kappa particles shed from a killer paramecium are ingested, R bodies extend within the acidic food vacuole of the predatory paramecium, distending and rupturing the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a hypertonic environment, the cell membrane peels off of the cell wall and the vacuole collapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • It has a signal sequence-like N-terminal segment that, according to studies with green and red fluorescent protein chimeras, anchors unassembled PulG in the inner membrane. (asm.org)
  • The predicted topology of PrePulG in the inner membrane (IM) is that of a type II bitopic membrane protein, with an N-in, C-out orientation. (asm.org)
  • increases
  • Results suggest that the smaller molecule impacts the membrane by a mechanism that increases the average CPP, reducing membrane conduction. (edu.au)
  • increased ionic
  • The variation in membrane conduction most probably arises from individual melimines inducing increased ionic permeability which is then reduced as the melimines aggregate and phase separate within the membrane. (edu.au)
  • voltage
  • In this case, the voltage across the cell membrane is controlled by the experimenter and the resulting currents are recorded. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case the current passing across the membrane is controlled by the experimenter and the resulting changes in voltage are recorded, generally in the form of action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • However much current is needed to clamp the voltage is opposite in sign and equal in magnitude to the current through the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • We found that the properties of spheroplast membranes are significantlydifferent from that of laboratory-prepared lipid vesicles or that of previously investigated animal cells. (health-articles.net)
  • Spheroplasts with recombinant DNA are introduced into the media containing animal cells and are fused by polyethylene glycol (PEG). (wikipedia.org)
  • The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology used to study ionic currents in individual isolated living cells, tissue sections, or patches of cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of electrode is distinct from the "sharp microelectrode" used to puncture cells in traditional intracellular recordings, in that it is sealed onto the surface of the cell membrane, rather than inserted through it. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells will eventually wilt and die unless the flow of water caused by osmosis can stop the contraction of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • channels
  • The membrane can then be analyzed on a patch clamp apparatus to determine the phenotype of the ion channels embedded in it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-attached and both excised patch techniques are used to study the behavior of individual ion channels in the section of membrane attached to the electrode. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • Two types of L-forms are distinguished: unstable L-forms, spheroplasts that are capable of dividing, but can revert to the original morphology, and stable L-forms, L-forms that are unable to revert to the original bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Silver, L.L. Rational approaches to antibiotic discovery: pre-genomic directed and phenotypic screening, 2.4.2 Screens for spheroplast formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • This small size is used to enclose a membrane surface area or "patch" that often contains just one or a few ion channel molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some experiments, the micropipette tip is heated in a microforge to produce a smooth surface that assists in forming a high resistance seal with the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • The importance of such a structure is underlined by the notion that everything that exists outside of the biological membrane is non-living. (mdpi.com)
  • patch
  • The whole-cell patch, which enables low-resistance electrical access to the inside of a cell, has now largely replaced high-resistance microelectrode recording techniques to record currents across the entire cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Dr Cranfield's current research interests are in using the tethered lipid bilayer membranes (tBLMs) in conjunction with electrical impedance spectroscopy to investigate the insertion and function of biological metabolites and antimicrobial peptides. (edu.au)