• solvent
  • Literature review reveals properties of polymer solution used for membrane synthesisincluding solution concentration, solvent type and additives are the most pertinent factors influencing membrane morphology. (civilica.com)
  • Solvent flows across the membrane to dilute the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be "selective", this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as solvent molecules) to pass freely. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the normal osmosis process, the solvent naturally moves from an area of low solute concentration (high water potential), through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration (low water potential). (wikipedia.org)
  • The driving force for the movement of the solvent is the reduction in the free energy of the system when the difference in solvent concentration on either side of a membrane is reduced, generating osmotic pressure due to the solvent moving into the more concentrated solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • high flux
  • The membrane performance was found to be strongly affected by each variable, and the best membrane gave a consistently high flux (27 kg/m 2 h) on prolonged operation, with almost zero salt rejection (%SR), when subjected to 5 bar operating pressure. (iwaponline.com)
  • When analysed for change in ß 2 microglobulin, a fall was only noted with high-flux membranes. (cochrane.org)
  • Increased binding of beta-2-microglobulin to blood cells in dialysis patients treated with high-flux dialyzers compared with low-flux membranes contributed to reduced beta-2-microglobulin concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • John Cadotte, of FilmTec Corporation, discovered that membranes with particularly high flux and low salt passage could be made by interfacial polymerization of m-phenylene diamine and trimesoyl chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • separation
  • In dialysis, a sample and a buffer solution (called the dialysate) are separated by a semi-permeable membrane that causes differential diffusion patterns, thereby permitting the separation of molecules in both the sample and dialysate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dialysis tubing, also known as Visking tubing, is a type of semi-permeable membrane tubing used in separation techniques, that facilitates the removal or exchange of small molecules from macromolecules in solution based on differential diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymer
  • Bacterial cellulose (BC), a natural polymer with unique physical and mechanical properties, has several applications in the biomedical field, including drug loading and controlled drug delivery. (edu.pl)
  • A membrane osmometer is a device used to indirectly measure the number average molecular weight ( M n {\displaystyle M_{n}} ) of a polymer sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • ionic
  • The charge balance of the system is compensated by ionic movement inside the cell, usually across an ionic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • dialyzers
  • We compared the biocompatibility of the following two dialyzers with different triacetate membrane: FB-190UHβ with CTA, and FA-190F with ATA® (both from Nipro, Osaka, Japan). (springer.com)
  • First, blood circuits and dialyzers with either CTA or ATA® membrane were connected and were rinsed with 1000 mL of saline solution, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Cuprophan, a cellulose membrane based on the process, was being used in dialyzers after World War II (1939-45). (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • The influences of membrane modification, initial feed concentration, and filler loading on the membrane performance for removal of the mentioned ions were investigated. (deepdyve.com)
  • By contrast, small molecules will freely diffuse across the membrane and obtain equilibrium across the entire solution volume, thereby changing the overall concentration of these molecules in the sample and dialysate (see dialysis figure at right). (wikipedia.org)
  • thickness
  • Plots of resistance vs. membrane thickness were curved due to current refraction into the region clamped between the mating faces of the cell. (springer.com)
  • Conductance and thickness values for regenerated cellulose membranes in CsOH, KOH, NaOH and LiOH over a wide range of concentrations are reported. (springer.com)
  • Diameter
  • Patel and Rao have used this method to grow crystals up to 30 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick The reaction can be slowed also by separating the two reagents with a permeable membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Variables investigated included time of evaporation of as-cast membrane, temperature of coagulation water bath and post annealing of membrane. (iwaponline.com)
  • The efficiency of such membranes, however, depends upon a certain relatively high water content thereof. (google.com)
  • This water content must be constantly maintained in the production of the membrane if the properties characterizing the membranes for the required use -- high volume flux and high desalting capacity -- are not lost completely or substantially completely. (google.com)
  • The necessity to keep the membranes, prior to and after their use, in water at least, in a sufficiently moist atmosphere is a disadvantage since shipping of the membranes, as well as their storage prior to and after their use, and the equipping of the modules with the membranes are complicated. (google.com)
  • There is the further risk that storage of the membranes in water or a moist atmosphere will effect destruction of the membrane structure, which may lead to a reduction or loss of their efficiency. (google.com)
  • It is known to treat cellulose acetate sheet materials first with water at a temperature in the range of 70° to 90°C, whereby a desalting ability is imparted to the sheet material by the structural change caused by the heat treatment. (google.com)
  • however, cellulose acetate can only be used with toluene and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • dialysis membranes made of polysulfone, polyethersulfone (PES), etched polycarbonate, or collagen are also extensively used for specific medical, food, or water treatment applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • seawater or brackish water is pressurized against one surface of the membrane, causing transport of salt-depleted water across the membrane and emergence of potable drinking water from the low-pressure side. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, the membrane is designed to allow only water to pass through this dense layer, while preventing the passage of solutes (such as salt ions). (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Inside the stack, zinc ions pass through a selective membrane and change into metallic zinc on the stack's negative side. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • A non-empirical correction was made for this refraction which linearized the data and enabled accurate values of membrane conductance to be achieved. (springer.com)
  • In this study, a comparison was made between CTA and ATA® membranes in order to evaluate the effect of physical structure of the membrane on the biocompatibility. (springer.com)
  • The first mass-produced man-made membranes suitable for dialysis were not available until the 1930s based on materials used in the food packaging industry such as Cellophane. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Dialysis can be used to either introduce or remove small molecules from a sample, because small molecules move freely across the membrane in both directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although dialyzing a sample is relatively simple, a universal dialysis procedure for all applications cannot be provided due to the following variables: The sample volume The size of the molecules being separated The membrane used The geometry of the membrane, which affects the diffusion distance Additionally, the dialysis endpoint is somewhat subjective and application specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dialysis tubing is also frequently used as a teaching aid to demonstrate the principles of diffusion, osmosis, Brownian motion and the movement of molecules across a restrictive membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • An electrochemical battery typically uses two metals, separated into two chambers and connected by a bridge or a membrane which permits the exchange of electrons between the two metals, thereby producing energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • in this type of MFC the bacteria typically have electrochemically active redox proteins such as cytochromes on their outer membrane that can transfer electrons directly to the anode. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Dialysis occurs throughout nature and the principles of dialysis have been exploited by humans for thousands of years using natural animal or plant based membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ion exchange (accompanied by flow of electric current) occurs through the membrane while both liquids circulate in their own respective space. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Electrophoresis is a laboratory technique in which the blood serum (the fluid portion of the blood after the blood has clotted) is applied to an acetate membrane soaked in a liquid buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disposable
  • While the first application of regenerated cellulose was as a clothing textile, this class of materials is also used in the production of disposable medical devices as well as fabrication of artificial membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Cellulose-based membranes are also widely used for applications ranging from food wrapping, film stock, or "plastic" wrap. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process, patented by the founders of the Viscose Development Company, is the most widely used method for manufacturing regenerated cellulose products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • A flow battery, or redox flow battery (after reduction-oxidation), is a type of electrochemical cell where chemical energy is provided by two chemical components dissolved in liquids contained within the system and separated by a membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • By a new spinning technology, irregularities or roughness in the inner surface of ATA have become less than those of the conventional CTA membrane. (springer.com)