• proteins
  • 6,7 ), and the purification of other membrane proteins. (springer.com)
  • 8 Although both non-chromatographic and chromatographic applications are evolving, the most useful application (s) of IAM will be for the purification of membrane proteins. (springer.com)
  • One of the most important roles membrane sugars play is receiving messages from signaling proteins and communicating those messages to the cell. (healthcanal.com)
  • These cell membranes contain numerous proteins, ion channels, and other biomolecules, each performing vital functions. (kit.edu)
  • It is planned to design sensors that react to the binding of proteins by a change of conductivity as well as sensors detecting the function of ion channels in membranes. (kit.edu)
  • Ion channels are pore-forming proteins via which electrically charged particles can cross the membrane. (kit.edu)
  • The membrane channels reject polyethylene glycol with a molecular size of 10 kg mol−1, but are permeable to proteins, such as lysozyme (14.3 kg mol−1) and cytochrome c (12.4 kg mol−1), due to the right balance of hydrogen bond interactions along the channels, electrostatic attraction, as well as the right pore sizes. (edu.sa)
  • In this context, membrane-bound proteins are of special interest since they constitute a third of our genome and represent the target of half of the most common medical drugs. (chalmers.se)
  • Membranes for artificial cells be made of simple polymers, crosslinked proteins, lipid membranes or polymer-lipid complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, membranes can be engineered to present surface proteins such as albumin, antigens, Na/K-ATPase carriers, or pores such as ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has long been believed that general anaesthetics exert their effects (analgesia, amnesia, immobility) by modulating the activity of membrane proteins in the neuronal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Action by large clostridial toxins (LCTs) from Clostridium difficile includes four steps: (1) receptor-mediated endocytosis, (2) translocation of a catalytic glucosyltransferase domain across the membrane, (3) release of the enzymatic part by auto-proteolysis, and (4) inactivation of Rho family proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid bilayers
  • Non-covalent immobilized artificial membrane reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was previously evaluated as a means whereby elution times for antimicrobial peptides from columns mimicking the lipid bilayers of different membrane systems might be used as a fast-screening method to compare relative binding effectiveness. (ualberta.ca)
  • sterol
  • It has been demonstrated that their activity is generally linked to interactions with the plasma membrane, and sterol components of the plasma membrane could play a major role in this interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • silicon carbide
  • An example of a highly porous membrane is the type made of silicon carbide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other companies outside France include Philips Ceramics Uden[permanent dead link], Atech, Inopor, Jiangsu Jiuwu, MetaWater, Likuid Nanotek, Liqtech, and Mantec Technical Ceramics Ltd (http://www.mantectechnicalceramics.com/products-services/porous-ceramics/filtration/star-sep-membranes/elements) While most of the ceramic membrane manufacturers produce the membranes of carriers and membrane layers of alumina oxide, titanium oxide and zirconia oxide only a few manufacturers work with silicon carbide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon carbide requires higher sintering temperatures (>2000 °C) compared to oxide based membranes (1200-1600 °C). The pioneers in developing and commercializing silicon carbide membranes are the Danish company Liqtech, French company Veolia (CeraMem) and American company Kemco Systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • Although the protocellular self-assembly process that spontaneously form lipid monolayer vesicles and micelles in nature resemble the kinds of primordial vesicles or protocells that might have existed at the beginning of evolution, they are not as sophisticated as the bilayer membranes of today's living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007) present an integrated model for the uptake and inositolphosphate-induced activation of toxin B. Clostridium difficile infection, caused by the actions of the homologous toxins TcdA and TcdB on colonic epithelial cells is due to binding to target cells which triggers toxin internalization into acidified vesicles, whereupon cryptic segments from within the 1,050-aa translocation domain unfurl and insert into the bounding membrane, creating a transmembrane passageway to the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • ultrafiltration
  • Wykes et al (5) have described the use of a soluble high molecular weight derivative of NAD which can be retained in a continuous flow reactor by an ultrafiltration membrane. (springer.com)
  • polymer
  • As the polymer exits the spinneret, it solidifies into a membrane through a process known as phase inversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The properties of the membrane -such as average pore diameter and membrane thickness- can be finely tuned by changing the dimensions of the spinneret, temperature and composition of "dope" (polymer) and "bore" (solvent) solutions, length of air gap (for dry-jet wet spinning), temperature and composition of the coagulant, as well as the speed at which produced fiber is collected by a motorized spool. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymer has to be a suitable membrane former in terms of its chains rigidity, chain interactions, stereoregularity, and polarity of its functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymer has to be obtainable and reasonably priced to comply with the low cost criteria of membrane separation process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polysulfone (PS) Polyethylene (PE) Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Polypropylene (PP) Polymer membranes may be functionalized into ion exchange membranes by the addition of highly acidic or basic functional groups, e.g. sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium, enabling the membrane to form water channels and selectively transport cations or anions, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • aqueous
  • Membranes create enclosed compartments that are separate from the external environment, thus providing the cell with functionally specialized aqueous spaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The cell membrane is one of the most important components of a cell because it separates the interior from the environment and controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. (slashdot.org)
  • In a move that brings mankind another step closer to being able to create artificial life forms from scratch, chemists from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and Harvard University have created artificial self-assembling cell membranes using a novel chemical reaction. (slashdot.org)
  • Part of the reason cell membrane sugars, called glycans, are so poorly understood is that scientists were unable to accurately model them until last year, when Percec's lab devised a way of programming artificial membranes with a precise number and spatial arrangement of sugars. (healthcanal.com)
  • It is therefore important to study cell membranes for many areas of medicine and biotechnology. (kit.edu)
  • In particular, it is shown how various artificial cell membranes can be spontaneously formed inside nanoholes. (chalmers.se)
  • Action of mycosubtilin, an antifungal antibiotic of Bacillus subtilis, on the cell membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the area of synthetic biology, a "living" artificial cell has been defined as a completely synthetically made cell that can capture energy, maintain ion gradients, contain macromolecules as well as store information and have the ability to mutate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a cell is not technically feasible yet, but a variation of an artificial cell has been created in which a completely synthetic genome was introduced to genomically emptied host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although not completely artificial because the cytoplasmic components as well as the membrane from the host cell are kept, the engineered cell is under control of a synthetic genome and is able to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • On December 29, 2011, chemists at Harvard University reported the creation of an artificial cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January of that year researchers produce an artificial eukaryotic cell capable of undertaking multiple chemical reactions through working organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many variations for artificial cell preparation and encapsulation have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane is the only cellular structure that is found in all of the cells of all of the organisms on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) is a fast ion conductor material used as a membrane in several types of molten salt electrochemical cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxins form ion-permeable channels in cell membranes and artificial bilayers when exposed to acidic pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • There are lots of membrane sugar-protein interactions that are important for disease," Percec said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that artificial channels can be designed for protein transport via block copolymer self-assembly using classical methods of membrane preparation. (edu.sa)
  • In this technique alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and NAD were immobilized together in a protein membrane by a previously described method (8). (springer.com)
  • anion
  • An alkali anion exchange membrane (AAEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct anions while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen or hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important functional materials in this category include proton exchange membranes and alkaline anion exchange membranes, that are at the heart of many technologies in water treatment, energy storage, energy generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • THOMAS, D. and CAPLAN, S.R., in "Membrane Separation Processes", Ed. Meares P. Elsevier Publishing Co. Amsterdam (1974). (springer.com)
  • Other applications include biotechnology processes, morphing aircraft and spacecraft, adaptive wind generators, and artificial organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The group growth gave rise to the creation of a laboratory fully dedicated to the membrane materials and processes from 1994 and to the European Membrane Institute of Montpellier in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic membranes have been successfully used for small and large-scale industrial processes since the middle of twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • These results suggest that this special proteolipid, when added to the artificial membranes, induces a "chemical excitability" toward cholinergic ligands. (rupress.org)
  • Low pH presumably induces conformational/structural changes that promote membrane insertion and channel formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • biologically
  • These columns had lipid packing densities much lower than true membranes, indicating that the peptides were partitioning deep into the bonded phase of the columns rather than into the interfacial region of the phosphate head groups, as expected in situations of biologically-relevant lipid packing densities. (ualberta.ca)
  • surfaces
  • Early efforts to mimic membrane surfaces in the lab were crude and simplistic, with no control over the number or distribution of sugars. (healthcanal.com)
  • Consequently, researchers frequently use model membranes that are applied to special surfaces. (kit.edu)
  • The L-DPN technique uses a very sharp tip to write lipid membranes onto surfaces in a way similar to what a quill pen does with ink on paper," explains Dr. Michael Hirtz from the INT. This tip has an apex in the range of a few nanometers only and is controlled with a high precision by a machine. (kit.edu)
  • peptides
  • Such a system would aid in the development of antimicrobial peptides that bind preferentially to model pathogenic systems and leave the host's membranes reasonably unaffected. (ualberta.ca)
  • A non-covalent approach allows for flexibility in membrane composition but was found to be inadequate for analysis of most peptides due to significant lipid loss at high acetonitrile concentrations. (ualberta.ca)
  • Later artificial cells have ranged from hundred-micrometer to nanometer dimensions and can carry microorganisms, vaccines, genes, drugs, hormones and peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Action of mycosubtilin and of bacillomycin L on Micrococcus luteus cells and protoplasts: influence of the polarity of the antibiotics upon their action on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Currently Aerospace Research Systems, Inc - the agency that pioneered work in developing artificial neurons for use in control of multifunctional smart structures - is applying the technology to reusable launch vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most of commercially utilized synthetic membranes in separation industry are made of polymeric structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • channels
  • Transmission electron microscopy of the membrane cross-sections confirmed the formation of channels with hydroxyl groups beneficial for hydrogen-bond forming sites. (edu.sa)
  • Accumulation of critical amounts of anaesthetic causes membrane thickening sufficient to reversibly alter function of membrane ion channels thus providing anaesthetic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • phases
  • Maintaining adequate long-term stability is the problem, due to the tendency of membrane liquids to evaporate or dissolve in the phases in contact with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • By modifying a single building block in Gal-8's structure, exactly as nature does in a portion of the population, the researchers dramatically impaired its ability to communicate with the artificial membrane, suggesting a possible molecular basis for the disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • Actual chemical structure of the anaesthetic agent per se is not important, but its molecular volume plays the major role: the more space within membrane is occupied by anaesthetic - the greater is the anaesthetic effect. (wikipedia.org)