• vesicles
  • When phospholipids are placed in water, the molecules spontaneously arrange such that the tails are shielded from the water, resulting in the formation of membrane structures such as bilayers, vesicles, and micelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the protocellular self-assembly process that spontaneously form lipid monolayer vesicles and micelles in nature resemble the kinds of primordial vesicles or protocells that might have existed at the beginning of evolution, they are not as sophisticated as the bilayer membranes of today's living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • They cause disruption of both biological membranes and artificial vesicles, particularly to those rich in phosphatidylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007) present an integrated model for the uptake and inositolphosphate-induced activation of toxin B. Clostridium difficile infection, caused by the actions of the homologous toxins TcdA and TcdB on colonic epithelial cells is due to binding to target cells which triggers toxin internalization into acidified vesicles, whereupon cryptic segments from within the 1,050-aa translocation domain unfurl and insert into the bounding membrane, creating a transmembrane passageway to the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymer
  • It is performed by removing the solvent from a liquid-polymer solution, leaving a porous, solid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the polymer exits the spinneret, it solidifies into a membrane through a process known as phase inversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymer has to be a suitable membrane former in terms of its chains rigidity, chain interactions, stereoregularity, and polarity of its functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polysulfone (PS) Polyethylene (PE) Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Polypropylene (PP) Polymer membranes may be functionalized into ion exchange membranes by the addition of highly acidic or basic functional groups, e.g. sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium, enabling the membrane to form water channels and selectively transport cations or anions, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • molten
  • Beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) is a fast ion conductor material used as a membrane in several types of molten salt electrochemical cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • It can transfer up to 7 sterol molecules per minute between artificial membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Micro-encapsulation allows for metabolism within the membrane, exchange of small molecules and prevention of passage of large substances across it. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells consisted of ultrathin membranes of nylon, collodion or crosslinked protein whose semipermeable properties allowed diffusion of small molecules in and out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because lipid bilayer of membranes is impermeable to most hydrophilic molecules (dissolved by water), the cell must have membrane transport systems that are in charge of import of nutritive molecules as well as export of waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cooperative interactions between the membrane and encapsulated contents could greatly simplify the transition from replicating molecules to true cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, competition for membrane molecules would favor stabilized membranes, suggesting a selective advantage for the evolution of cross-linked fatty acids and even the phospholipids of today. (wikipedia.org)
  • They assumed that bulky and hydrophobic anaesthetic molecules accumulate inside the hydrophobic (or lipophilic) regions of neuronal lipid membrane causing its distortion and expansion (thickening) due to volume displacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • sterol
  • It has been demonstrated that their activity is generally linked to interactions with the plasma membrane, and sterol components of the plasma membrane could play a major role in this interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • An artificial cell or minimal cell is an engineered particle that mimics one or many functions of a biological cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial cells in biological cell encapsulation were first used in the clinic in 1994 for treatment in a diabetic patient and since then other types of cells such as hepatocytes, adult stem cells and genetically engineered cells have been encapsulated and are under study for use in tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • pores
  • Further, membranes can be engineered to present surface proteins such as albumin, antigens, Na/K-ATPase carriers, or pores such as ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Currently Aerospace Research Systems, Inc - the agency that pioneered work in developing artificial neurons for use in control of multifunctional smart structures - is applying the technology to reusable launch vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • thought to be global (through nonspecific perturbation of lipid membrane of CNS neurons) rather than through specific sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Other applications include biotechnology processes, morphing aircraft and spacecraft, adaptive wind generators, and artificial organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The group growth gave rise to the creation of a laboratory fully dedicated to the membrane materials and processes from 1994 and to the European Membrane Institute of Montpellier in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic membranes have been successfully used for small and large-scale industrial processes since the middle of twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • compartments
  • Membranes create enclosed compartments that are separate from the external environment, thus providing the cell with functionally specialized aqueous spaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • It has long been believed that general anaesthetics exert their effects (analgesia, amnesia, immobility) by modulating the activity of membrane proteins in the neuronal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Action by large clostridial toxins (LCTs) from Clostridium difficile includes four steps: (1) receptor-mediated endocytosis, (2) translocation of a catalytic glucosyltransferase domain across the membrane, (3) release of the enzymatic part by auto-proteolysis, and (4) inactivation of Rho family proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • In the area of synthetic biology, a "living" artificial cell has been defined as a completely synthetically made cell that can capture energy, maintain ion gradients, contain macromolecules as well as store information and have the ability to mutate. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] All these common features of general anaesthetics made it hard for early researchers to believe that general anaesthetics act in a specific manner and their action on neuronal membrane was[timeframe? (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly
  • The properties of HFMs can be characterized using the same techniques commonly used for other types of membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly used driving forces of a membrane process in industry are pressure and concentration gradients. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Action of mycosubtilin, an antifungal antibiotic of Bacillus subtilis, on the cell membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a cell is not technically feasible yet, but a variation of an artificial cell has been created in which a completely synthetic genome was introduced to genomically emptied host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • On December 29, 2011, chemists at Harvard University reported the creation of an artificial cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January of that year researchers produce an artificial eukaryotic cell capable of undertaking multiple chemical reactions through working organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major advantage of liposomes is their ability to fuse to cell and organelle membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many variations for artificial cell preparation and encapsulation have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane is the only cellular structure that is found in all of the cells of all of the organisms on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Notably, artificial cells have been clinically successful in hemoperfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later artificial cells have ranged from hundred-micrometer to nanometer dimensions and can carry microorganisms, vaccines, genes, drugs, hormones and peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first clinical use of artificial cells was in hemoperfusion by the encapsulation of activated charcoal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Chang's initial research focused on artificial red blood cells, only in the mid-1990s were biodegradable artificial red blood cells developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • They also have excellent thermal stability which makes them usable in high-temperature membrane operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • stability
  • Maintaining adequate long-term stability is the problem, due to the tendency of membrane liquids to evaporate or dissolve in the phases in contact with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • channels
  • Accumulation of critical amounts of anaesthetic causes membrane thickening sufficient to reversibly alter function of membrane ion channels thus providing anaesthetic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Actual chemical structure of the anaesthetic agent per se is not important, but its molecular volume plays the major role: the more space within membrane is occupied by anaesthetic - the greater is the anaesthetic effect. (wikipedia.org)