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  • hydrophobic
  • These voltage-sensitive dyes are lipophilic and preferably localized in membranes with their hydrophobic tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcelluar diffusion simply involves the movement of solutes based on a diffusion gradient moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, however, the cell membrane is a hydrophobic environment and will not allow the passive diffusion of charged, hydrophilic, or zwitterion molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • This membrane protein imports 3 Na ions and exports 2 K ions at the cost of hydrolyzing 1 molecule of ATP. (physicsforums.com)
  • Hydrolyzing ATP provides energy (free energy) as [ATP]/[ADP] falls to equilibrium- 57 kJ/mol, or 590 mV, assuming a single ATP molecule gives all it's energy to a single charge (the calculation is correct, but I can't account for the discrepancy with the resting potential). (physicsforums.com)
  • This molecule (dye) intercalates among the lipophilic part of biological membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • It's important to note that the membrane potential of mitochondria is much higher than 60mV- IIRC it's closer to 220 mV. (physicsforums.com)
  • Edit: I guess I didn't actually answer your question- the answer is that the membrane resting potential is set by how efficiently mitochondria convert the energy of burning sucrose into a proton gradient. (physicsforums.com)
  • Membrane potential changes of isolated mitochondria from various well-established cell lines such as human HeLa cell line (Heb7A), human osteosarcoma cell line (143b) and mouse skeletal muscle tissue were investigated and compared. (rsc.org)
  • Rhodamine fluorescence can also be used as a measure of membrane polarization in live cell assays both within mitochondria and with bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Peter Klock Hepler HonFRMS is the Constantine J. Gilgut and Ray Ethan Torrey Professor Emeritus in the Biology Department of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst who is notable for his work on elucidating the roles of calcium, membranes and the cytoskeleton in plant cell development and cell motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • In principle, there is no difference between resting membrane potential and dynamic voltage changes like action potential from a biophysical point of view: all these phenomena are caused by specific changes in membrane permeabilities for potassium, sodium, calcium, and chloride ions, which in turn result from concerted changes in functional activity of various ion channels, ion transporters, and exchangers. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Among other roles, the cell potential acts as a reservoir for metabolic energy, which cells use to drive the transport of solute molecules across the membrane, to communicate with other cells and to trigger intracellular events. (academickids.com)
  • imaging parameters, such as excitation wavelength, emission wavelength, exposure time, should also be optimized Voltage-sensitive dyes often fail to penetrate through connective tissue or move through intracellular spaces to the region of membrane desired for study. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The chromophore is believed to undergo a large electronic charge shift as a result of excitation from the ground to the excited state and this underlies the putative electrochromic mechanism for the sensitivity of these dyes to membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a common mechanism by which many cells establish a membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATPase
  • The proton motive force (pmf) across the lysosomal membrane is generated by a V-type ATPase which hydrolyzes cytoplasmic ATP to pump protons into the lysosomal lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • continuously
  • On the other hand, it has been continuously reported the existence of the membrane potential inexplicable by the GHK equation by a small number of researchers [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • dyes
  • Membrane potential can be determined in individual cells from the Nernstian distribution of cationic dyes. (springer.com)
  • Fast-response probes: These are amphiphilic membrane staining dyes which usually have a pair of hydrocarbon chains acting as membrane anchors and a hydrophilic group which aligns the chromophore perpendicular to the membrane/aqueous interface. (wikipedia.org)