• receptors
  • Spontaneous cytotoxic activity is mainly triggered by NKG2D, leukocyte adhesion molecule DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1) (CD226), and natural cytotoxicity receptors, whereas CD16, by binding the Fc portion of IgG, binds to opsonized cells mediating Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) ( 8 , 9 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • IL-2 mediates its effects by binding to IL-2 receptors, which are expressed by lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin receptors on astrocytes in the hippocampus are also known to be involved in the development of spatial memories in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when mice with this genetic deletion have wild-type neural precursor cells injected into their hippocampus and these cells are allowed to mature into astrocytes containing the interleukin-1 receptors, the mice exhibit normal hippocampal-dependent memory function, and partial restoration of long-term potentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • This protein plays a central role in exerting IL4 mediated biological responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • NKG2D and DNAM-1 recognize stress-induced ligands expressed by several tumor cell lines, such as MHC-I polypeptide-related sequence A, MHC-I polypeptide-related sequence B, and UL16-binding protein (NKG2D ligands), and poliovirus receptor (CD155) and Nectin-2 (CD112) (DNAM-1 ligands) ( 13 , 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The name "interleukin" was chosen in 1979, to replace the various different names used by different research groups to designate interleukin 1 (lymphocyte activating factor, mitogenic protein, T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation factor, and "Heidikine") and interleukin 2 (TSF, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is essential for the homeostasis of lymphoid cells particularly memory CD8+ T cells and NK cells. (uu.nl)
  • Aiming to overcome this resistance by tackling the stromal shield, we assessed for the first time the capacity of IL-15 stimulated natural killer (NK) cells to kill PSC and pancreatic cancer cells (PCC). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We demonstrate that IL-15 activated NK cells kill both PCC and PSC lines (range 9-35% and 20-50%, respectively) in a contact-dependent manner and significantly higher as compared to resting NK cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, we confirm significant killing of primary PSC by IL-15 activated NK cells in an ex vivo autologous system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recruited in acute tumor-directed immune responses, appear to protect against tumor development [ 15 , 16 ], whereas the immune responses involving chronic activation of humoral immunity and infiltration of Th2 cells, result in the promotion of tumor development and disease progression [ 16 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Involvement of the Jak-3 Janus kinase in signalling by interleukins 2 and 4 in lymphoid and myeloid cells," Nature , vol. 370, no. 6485, pp. 153-157, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we overview the main features and functions of NK cells, focusing on their role in cell-mediated immune response to tumor cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, FcR mediated functions of NK cells from cancer patients are significantly impaired. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Experimental Design: Co-cultures of autologous NK cells and MDSC from cancer patients were used to study the effect of MDSC on NK cell FcR mediated functions including antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity, cytokine production, and signal transduction in vitro. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • This cytokine has been found to be important for sustaining a sufficient number of memory/effector Th1 cells to mediate long-term protection to an intracellular pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-neuroblastoma effect of ch14.18 antibody produced in CHO cells is mediated by NK-cells in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • This initial hydroperoxide product is extremely short-lived in cells: if not otherwise metabolized, it is rapidly reduced to 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15-Lipooxygenase-2: Cells also used 15-lipoxygenase 2 (i.e. 15-LOX-2 or ALOX15B) to make 15(S)-HpETE and 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloxygenase: Cells can use prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (i.e. cyclooxygenenase-1 or COX-1) and Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) to metabolize arachidonic acid primarily to prostaglandins but also to small amounts of 11(R)-HETE and a racemic mixture of 15-HETEs composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-17A receptor A (IL-17RA) was first isolated and cloned from mouse EL4 thymoma cells and the bioactivity of IL-17A was confirmed by stimulating the transcriptional factor NF-kappa B activity and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of interleukins are synthesized by helper CD4 T lymphocytes, as well as through monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name is something of a relic, though (the term was coined by Dr Vern Paetkau, University of Victoria) it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant expression enables cells to process precursor Interleukin 1 Beta to the mature form of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors, which include interleukin 2 (IL2), are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T cells, and have various physiological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 6 is secreted by T cells and macrophages to stimulate immune response, e.g. during infection and after trauma, especially burns or other tissue damage leading to inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • Through its role in the development of T cell immunologic memory, which depends upon the expansion of the number and function of antigen-selected T cell clones, it plays a key role in enduring cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40
  • In addition, blocking of the costimulatory molecules CD40 ( 15 ), CD80, and CD86 ( 16 ) on activated monocytes has been shown to decrease NK cell IFN-γ production. (jimmunol.org)
  • Melanoma immunotherapy by targeted IL-2 depends on CD4(+) T-cell help mediated by CD40/CD40L interaction [In Process Citation]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Here we characterized obesity-associated metabolic and cellular changes in the liver of mice lacking IL-15 or IL-15Rα. (uu.nl)
  • fat diet-induced accumulation of lipids was diminished in the livers of mice deficient for IL-15 or IL-15Rα. (uu.nl)
  • Janus
  • Phosphorylation and activation of the Jak-3 Janus kinase in response to interleukin-2," Nature , vol. 370, no. 6485, pp. 151-153, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • inhibitory
  • Amino-acid sequence motifs for PKC-mediated membrane trafficking of the inhibitory killer Ig-like receptor," Immunology and Cell Biology , vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 372-380, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • IL-6's role as an anti-inflammatory cytokine is mediated through its inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha and IL-1, and activation of IL-1ra and IL-10. (wikipedia.org)
  • tyrosine
  • In the retraction statement for one of the articles, "A promiscuous liaison between IL-15 and Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in cell death control", the authors of the paper, minus the two Russian researchers, alleged Bulanova and Budagian performed both the experiments and the data manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • This stroma, which can cover more than 50% of the tumor, acts as a mechanical and functional shield causing a diminished delivery of systemically administered anticancer agents due to a high intratumoral pressure and low microvascular density [ 11 - 15 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this terminology S refers to the absolute configuration of the chirality of the hydroxy functional group at carbon position 15. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Recent data suggest humoral factors such as muscle-derived secretory proteins may mediate the beneficial effects of exercise in the treatment of metabolic diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • mediators
  • Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • As skeletal muscle contraction is likely the primary stimulus for myokine synthesis and secretion, it is plausible that myokines mediate, in part at least, beneficial adaptations to tissues in response to exercise. (frontiersin.org)
  • acute
  • During the course of the present Puumala hantavirus outbreak, we prospectively collected clinical samples and followed NK cell responses in 16 patients from their first presentation at the emergency unit with acute symptoms until up to 15 mo after symptom debut. (rupress.org)
  • targets
  • These data underscore the therapeutic potential of IL-15 to promote NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity as a treatment of pancreatic cancer and provide promising future targets to tackle remaining PSC. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • role
  • This mini-review aims to summarize our current knowledge on the role of contraction-induced myokines in mediating the beneficial effects of physical activity and exercise in the prevention and treatment of T2D, specifically glucose and lipid metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thatte, A., DeWitte-Orr, S.J., Mossman, K.L. and Ashkar, A. (2011) A critical role for interleukin-15 in TLR mediated protection against HSV-2. (wlu.ca)
  • Interleukin 1 also plays a role in the Central Nervous System. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell-signaling molecules play a role in the immune response and include interferons and interleukins. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • When psychologically stressed, the human body produces stress hormones like cortisol, which are able to trigger interleukin-6 release into the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Poynter S.J., and DeWitte-Orr S. J.(2015) Length effects of dsRNA on type I IFN-mediated responses in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss )cell line, RTG-2. (wlu.ca)
  • activity
  • 15(R)-HpETE and 15(R)-HETE lack some of the activity attributed to their S stereoisomers but can be further to metabolized to bioactive products viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • psoriasis
  • Initially, psoriasis was considered to be a Th1-mediated disease since elevated levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-12 was found in the serum and lesions of psoriasis patients. (wikipedia.org)