• Biochemical
  • In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. (mdpi.com)
  • drought
  • This chapter focuses on the mechanisms by which cotton leaves regulate and use incident light and dissipate the excess light energy when cotton suffers from drought in the field. (intechopen.com)
  • oxygen
  • Xanthophylls contain their oxygen either as hydroxyl groups and/or as pairs of hydrogen atoms that are substituted by oxygen atoms acting as a bridge (epoxide). (wikipedia.org)
  • cope
  • Plants possess a number of adaptive, avoidance, or acclimation mechanisms to cope with HT situations. (mdpi.com)
  • protective
  • Astaxanthin, used is supplements, is usually derived from the algae, Haematococcus pluvialis, which manufactures this antioxidant as a protective mechanism to shield itself from the harmful UV rays. (victoriahealth.com)
  • plants
  • Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a mechanism employed by plants and algae to protect themselves from the adverse effects of high light intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enhanced UV radiation and its interaction with low water availability on seedling performance, biomass production, and photoprotective mechanisms of the sclerophyllous evergreen species Laurus nobilis L. (laurel). (csic.es)
  • compound
  • The latter compound is the only known xanthophyll to contain a beta-ionone ring, and thus β-cryptoxanthin is the only xanthophyll that is known to possess pro-vitamin A activity for mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • In addition, the inhibition of the AOX pathway increased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), suggesting that the AOX pathway functions as an antioxidant mechanism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proteins
  • Mechanisms may also act on a longer time-scale, such as up-regulation of stress response proteins or down-regulation of pigment biosynthesis, although these processes are better characterized as "photoacclimatization" processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The results also indicate the activation of different plant response mechanisms to UV-A and UV-B radiation, which would interact to produce the overall plant response. (csic.es)
  • among
  • Validity, accuracy, and social mechanisms ensuring quality control, such as peer review and repeatability of findings, are among the criteria and methods used for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • includes
  • The important mechanism of detoxification includes metal complexation with glutathione, amino acids, synthesis of phytochelatins and sequestration into the vacuoles. (springer.com)