• ions
  • Due to the fact that the main chemical information is "contained" in the positive ions, only those will be measured until encounter with the comet. (panspermia.org)
  • This definition often breaks down since many substances in ordinary experience, such as rocks, salts , and metals , are composed of atoms or ions , but are not made of molecules. (wikidoc.org)
  • The term unstable molecule is used for very reactive species, i.e., short-lived assemblies ( resonances ) of electrons and nuclei, such as radicals , molecular ions , Rydberg molecules, transition states , van der Waals complexes, or systems of colliding atoms as in Bose-Einstein condensates. (wikidoc.org)
  • The main components required to achieve electrolysis are: An electrolyte: a substance, frequently an ion-conducting polymer that contains free ions, which carry electric current in the electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key process of electrolysis is the interchange of atoms and ions by the removal or addition of electrons from the external circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutral atoms gain or lose electrons and become charged ions that then pass into the electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of uncharged atoms from ions is called discharging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rechargeable batteries store and discharge energy as charged atoms (ions) are moved between two electrodes, the anode and the cathode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atoms' identities are determined by their mass-to-charge ratio (via the mass analyzer) and their concentrations are determined by the number of ions detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon nanotube
  • For example, it is possible to transform peapod to the double-walled carbon nanotube by means of the partial or complete coalescence of the encapsulated fullerenes into the nanotube with smaller diameter under the high temperatures (~3600°C) through the SW mechanism [ 14 , 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • reactors
  • The first reactors (Manhattan Project etc.) used graphite as a moderator. (drones.com)
  • Pebble-bed reactors need fire-prevention features to keep the graphite of the pebbles from burning in the presence of air if the reactor wall is breached, although the flammability of the pebbles is disputed. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • At atmospheric pressure it has no melting point as its triple point is at 10.8 ± 0.2 MPa and 4,600 ± 300 K (~4,330 °C or 7,820 °F), so it sublimes at about 3,900 K. Graphite is much more reactive than diamond at standard conditions, despite being more thermodynamically stable, as its delocalised pi system is much more vulnerable to attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • naturally
  • On Earth, small amounts of new atoms are naturally produced in nucleogenic reactions, or in cosmogenic processes, such as cosmic ray spallation. (wikipedia.org)
  • New atoms are also naturally produced on Earth as radiogenic daughter isotopes of ongoing radioactive decay processes such as alpha decay, beta decay, spontaneous fission, cluster decay, and other rarer modes of decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • elements
  • Formation of elements with from 6 to 26 protons occurred and continues to occur in main sequence stars via stellar nucleosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example the molecule acetylene has molecular formula C 2 H 2 , but the simplest integer ratio of elements is CH. The molecular formula reflects the exact number of atoms that compose a molecule. (wikidoc.org)
  • widely
  • For the second meaning, the terms "elementary substance" and "simple substance" have been suggested, but they have not gained much acceptance in English chemical literature, whereas in some other languages their equivalent is widely used (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • fullerenes
  • Original peapods containing only C 60 fullerenes were synthesized in 1998 through the catalytic pulsed laser vaporization of graphite [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • example
  • Polyatomic nonmetals have structures with either three nearest neighbours, as is the case (for example) with carbon (in its standard state of graphite), or two nearest neighbours (for example) in the case of sulfur. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • In molecular sciences, a molecule consists of a stable system (bound state) comprising two or more atoms . (wikidoc.org)
  • energy
  • If the wavelength of the source light has energy corresponding to the energy difference between two energy levels in the atoms, a portion of the light will be absorbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • element
  • This absorbance value can then be used to determine the concentration of a given element (or atoms) within the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • partial
  • Many of those sites have partial occupancy, meaning that the probability to find them occupied with a certain atom is smaller than one and thus that only some of them are filled with atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In understanding the crystal structures of rare-earth borides, it is important to keep in mind the concept of partial site occupancy, that is, some atoms in the described below unit cells can take several possible positions with a given statistical probability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greek
  • The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • In particular, there is no clear distinction between the meaning of labels GR (general radiation), R (radiation) and TR (type-II radiation). (wikipedia.org)
  • The type of atoms present in a sample, or the amount of atoms present in a sample can be deduced from measuring these changes in light wavelength and light intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • It occurred on 25-26 April 1986 in the No.4 light water graphite moderated reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant near Pripyat, a town in northern Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic which was part of the Soviet Union (USSR), approximately 104 km north of Kiev. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water flashed into steam generating a destructive steam explosion and a subsequent open-air graphite fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Thus one might suppose that a low temperature is to be used and some other means to increase rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • The relationship between the concentration of atoms, the distance the light travels through the collection of atoms, and the portion of the light absorbed is given by the Beer-Lambert law. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • Not only is the process safer than the usual method, it means nearly anyone can apply the coating to a surface - experiments showed that irregularities in the drawn on sensor strips did not affect their reliability, so you can have a shaky hand and still be an expert carbon nanontube sensor-maker. (freedomsphoenix.com)