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  • Humans
  • Night blindness may be a feature of severe zinc deficiency, however most reports of night blindness and abnormal dark adaptation in humans with zinc deficiency have occurred in combination with other nutritional deficiencies (e.g. vitamin A). Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the development of respiratory, gastrointestinal, or other infections, e.g., pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • In genetics, maternal effects occur when an organism shows the phenotype expected from the genotype of the mother, irrespective of its own genotype, often due to the mother supplying messenger RNA or proteins to the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetics, a maternal effect occurs when the phenotype of an organism is determined by the genotype of its mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female
  • For example, if a mutation is maternal effect recessive, then a female homozygous for the mutation may appear phenotypically normal, however her offspring will show the mutant phenotype, even if they are heterozygous for the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Menarche is the culmination of a series of physiological and anatomic processes of puberty: Attainment of a sufficient body mass (typically 17% body fat). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological processes, as evidenced by its multiple sites of synthesis other than fat cells, and the multiple cell types beside hypothalamic cells that have leptin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • BACKGROUND: The maternal environment and early life exposure affect immune development in offspring. (uu.nl)
  • Wilson-Rich 2009) when describing immune phenomena which were contingent on the action of multiple individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 2010, Sheena Cotter and Rebecca Kilner (both then at the University of Cambridge) proposed to widen the definition of social immunity to "any type of immune response that has been selected to increase the fitness of the challenged individual and one or more recipients", and recommended that the phenomena described by Cremer be known as collective immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Since these genes are expressed in the (maternal) nurse cells and not in the oocyte or fertilised embryo, the maternal genotype determines whether they can function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to maternal obesogenic diets in early life is not likely to result in a substantial change in offspring appetite. (ox.ac.uk)
  • diet
  • DESIGN: A validated 181-item FFQ was applied retrospectively to assess the diet during the eighth month of pregnancy, and maternal height and maternal weight at first and last antenatal visits were recalled. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For example, many experimental studies on model animals have reported the effect of a maternal obesogenic diet during pregnancy on the appetite of offspring. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Meta-regression analysis revealed no significant influences of tested predictor variables (for example, use of choice vs no-choice maternal diet, offspring sex) on differences in offspring appetite. (ox.ac.uk)
  • likelihood
  • Studies how found that people born during the months of late winter and early spring have a higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia, a phenomenon known as the seasonality effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect
  • low protein content in the maternal chow can have opposite effect. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A maternal effect is a situation where the phenotype of an organism is determined not only by the environment it experiences and its genotype, but also by the environment and genotype of its mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the inheritance pattern of maternal effect mutations, special genetic screens are required to identify them. (wikipedia.org)
  • These typically involve examining the phenotype of the organisms one generation later than in a conventional (zygotic) screen, as their mothers will be potentially homozygous for maternal effect mutations that arise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many maternal effect Drosophila mutants have been found that affect the early steps in embryogenesis such as axis determination, including bicoid, dorsal, gurken and oskar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other maternal effect mutants either affect products that are similarly produced in the nurse cells and act in the oocyte, or parts of the transportation machinery that are required for this relocalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • environment
  • BACKGROUND: A link between early mismatched nutritional environment and development of components of the metabolic syndrome later in life has been shown in epidemiological and animal data. (uclouvain.be)
  • Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena (or events) has provided the foundation for developing science, philosophy, mythology, religion, anthropology, and numerous other fields of knowledge. (wikipedia.org)
  • birth
  • Data are adjusted for child's gestational age at birth, as well as maternal height, education, parity, and age at child's birth. (nih.gov)
  • control
  • Archer posited that decrements in maternal metabolic control altered fetal pancreatic beta cell, adipocyte (fat cell) and myocyte (muscle cell) development thereby inducing an enduring competitive advantage of adipocytes in the acquisition and sequestering on nutrient energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • sometimes
  • Distortions of self-experience such as feeling as if one's thoughts or feelings are not really one's own to believing thoughts are being inserted into one's mind, sometimes termed passivity phenomena, are also common. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Another important factor that contributes towards the anthropometric measurement of the human fetal growth is the maternal nutrition and maternal well-being. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many factors can impair fetal memory and its functions, primarily maternal actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal memory and brain development can be impaired by a number of maternal implications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archer posited that decrements in maternal metabolic control altered fetal pancreatic beta cell, adipocyte (fat cell) and myocyte (muscle cell) development thereby inducing an enduring competitive advantage of adipocytes in the acquisition and sequestering on nutrient energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetus
  • Maternal nutrition and the avoidance of drugs, alcohol and other substances during all nine months of pregnancy (especially the critical period when the nervous system is developing) is important to the development of the fetus and its memory systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena (or events) has provided the foundation for developing science, philosophy, mythology, religion, anthropology, and numerous other fields of knowledge. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Many maternal effect Drosophila mutants have been found that affect the early steps in embryogenesis such as axis determination, including bicoid, dorsal, gurken and oskar. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Family influences such as grandparents increased children's consumption of sweet drinks, often providing children drinks such as fruit juice and soft drinks regardless of maternal disapproval. (oclc.org)
  • example
  • For example, mammalian offspring depend on maternal lactation in their early life. (springer.com)
  • For example, if a mutation is maternal effect recessive, then a female homozygous for the mutation may appear phenotypically normal, however her offspring will show the mutant phenotype, even if they are heterozygous for the mutation. (wikipedia.org)