• Humans
  • Night blindness may be a feature of severe zinc deficiency, however most reports of night blindness and abnormal dark adaptation in humans with zinc deficiency have occurred in combination with other nutritional deficiencies (e.g. vitamin A). Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the development of respiratory, gastrointestinal, or other infections, e.g., pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human evolution from its first separation from the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees is characterized by a number of morphological, developmental, physiological, and behavioral changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that maternal effects contribute to variation in individual food intake and metabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Nevertheless, we found an effect on offspring body weight, consistent with permanent alterations of offspring metabolism in response to maternal diet. (ox.ac.uk)
  • genetics
  • In genetics, maternal effects occur when an organism shows the phenotype expected from the genotype of the mother, irrespective of its own genotype, often due to the mother supplying messenger RNA or proteins to the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetics, a maternal effect occurs when the phenotype of an organism is determined by the genotype of its mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • BACKGROUND: A link between early mismatched nutritional environment and development of components of the metabolic syndrome later in life has been shown in epidemiological and animal data. (uclouvain.be)
  • Archer posited that decrements in maternal metabolic control altered fetal pancreatic beta cell, adipocyte (fat cell) and myocyte (muscle cell) development thereby inducing an enduring competitive advantage of adipocytes in the acquisition and sequestering on nutrient energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female
  • Male lifespan correlated negatively with maternal age, parity, and litter size, whereas female lifespan did not correlate with these characteristics. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, if a mutation is maternal effect recessive, then a female homozygous for the mutation may appear phenotypically normal, however her offspring will show the mutant phenotype, even if they are heterozygous for the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • To understand the peculiarities of self-regulatory mechanisms in population dynamics, it is important to evaluate the heritability of life history traits as well as their dependence on seasonal and maternal environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effects
  • The Dutch famine during the Second World War provides an excellent example of the effects of maternal nutritional status on foetal outcome (Stein et al. (fao.org)
  • Maternal effects can also be caused by the maternal environment independent of genotype, sometimes controlling the size, sex, or behaviour of the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • These adaptive maternal effects lead to phenotypes of offspring that increase their fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that maternal effects are important for the evolution of adaptive responses to environmental heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohol
  • The association between diet, health and maternal weight gain of the women who consumed alcohol during pregnancy should be studied further. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Studies supported by this FOA will provide fundamental insights into a possible fetal-basis to adult disease that is influenced by maternal alcohol use. (nih.gov)
  • processes
  • Menarche is the culmination of a series of physiological and anatomic processes of puberty: Attainment of a sufficient body mass (typically 17% body fat). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • BACKGROUND: The maternal environment and early life exposure affect immune development in offspring. (uu.nl)
  • Wilson-Rich 2009) when describing immune phenomena which were contingent on the action of multiple individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 2010, Sheena Cotter and Rebecca Kilner (both then at the University of Cambridge) proposed to widen the definition of social immunity to "any type of immune response that has been selected to increase the fitness of the challenged individual and one or more recipients", and recommended that the phenomena described by Cremer be known as collective immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • diet
  • DESIGN: A validated 181-item FFQ was applied retrospectively to assess the diet during the eighth month of pregnancy, and maternal height and maternal weight at first and last antenatal visits were recalled. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For example, many experimental studies on model animals have reported the effect of a maternal obesogenic diet during pregnancy on the appetite of offspring. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Meta-regression analysis revealed no significant influences of tested predictor variables (for example, use of choice vs no-choice maternal diet, offspring sex) on differences in offspring appetite. (ox.ac.uk)
  • genes
  • Since these genes are expressed in the (maternal) nurse cells and not in the oocyte or fertilised embryo, the maternal genotype determines whether they can function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to maternal obesogenic diets in early life is not likely to result in a substantial change in offspring appetite. (ox.ac.uk)
  • status
  • A low BMI status, indicative of CED, is a particularly important aspect of the nutritional risk of women in a community during the reproductive years. (fao.org)
  • likelihood
  • Studies how found that people born during the months of late winter and early spring have a higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia, a phenomenon known as the seasonality effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • environment
  • A maternal effect is a situation where the phenotype of an organism is determined not only by the environment it experiences and its genotype, but also by the environment and genotype of its mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • birth
  • 1975). A study in South India attempted to relate maternal anthropometry with birth weight in 1,642 live births (Kapur et al. (fao.org)
  • The birth weights appeared to be linearly correlated with both maternal body weights and heights. (fao.org)
  • The competing nutritional needs of pregnancy and growth in an adolescent mother will affect the growth of the foetus and hence the birth weight of the child. (fao.org)
  • Effect
  • low protein content in the maternal chow can have opposite effect. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Because of the inheritance pattern of maternal effect mutations, special genetic screens are required to identify them. (wikipedia.org)
  • These typically involve examining the phenotype of the organisms one generation later than in a conventional (zygotic) screen, as their mothers will be potentially homozygous for maternal effect mutations that arise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many maternal effect Drosophila mutants have been found that affect the early steps in embryogenesis such as axis determination, including bicoid, dorsal, gurken and oskar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other maternal effect mutants either affect products that are similarly produced in the nurse cells and act in the oocyte, or parts of the transportation machinery that are required for this relocalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • Some regard sexual conflict as a subset of sexual selection (which was traditionally regarded as mutualistic), while others suggest it is a separate evolutionary phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)