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  • workpiece
  • Surfaces with a softer-grade resin bond are used to keep workpiece temperature low and an improved surface finish up to 1.6 µm Rmax With CFG it takes 117 s to remove 1 in3 (16 cm3) of material, whereas precision grinding would take more than 200 s to do the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • The developed and validated 3D FE model can be used for optimizing the cutting process in gun drilling (good surface finish and straightness) taking into account the complex gun drill geometry, cutting conditions, heat transfer and the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the workpiece material. (scientific.net)
  • The workpiece involved in arbor milling can be a flat material or a shaped material: either one can be worked with desirable results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical properties of the workpiece may be affected with a built-up edge or dull tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drilling may affect the mechanical properties of the workpiece by creating low residual stresses around the hole opening and a very thin layer of highly stressed and disturbed material on the newly formed surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes the workpiece to become more susceptible to corrosion and crack propagation at the stressed surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • When possible drilled holes should be located perpendicular to the workpiece surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tendency to walk is also preempted in various other ways, which include: Establishing a centering mark or feature before drilling, such as by: Casting, molding, or forging a mark into the workpiece Center punching Spot drilling (i.e., center drilling) Spot facing, which is machining a certain area on a casting or forging to establish an accurately located face on an otherwise rough surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maintain sharp tools: Tool wear results in a buildup of metal on the cutting edges and causes poor surface finish, tearing, and deflection of the workpiece. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • Forward-thinking cutting-fluid manufacturers are therefore developing families of fluids suited to specific grinding processes, related abrasive-machining processes, and specific workpiece materials. (sme.org)
  • Given the proper application method, fluid performance can be measured more effectively in the areas of surface finish, stock removal rate, wheel life, total power, and the normal force between the grinding wheel and the workpiece being ground. (sme.org)
  • alloy
  • This bronze alloy is very corrosion-resistant, a property which makes it suitable for use in environments such as the ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether the alloy was chosen because of metallurgical properties which facilitated casting or because of its whiter, more lustrous finish is a matter of conjecture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern "bismuth bronze" is technically neither an alloy nor a bronze, but a composite material containing brass and bismuth (though some bronzes are still used). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because liquid bismuth can lead to embrittlement in an alloy, care must be taken in processing and recycling of these materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arbor Milling can create an untempered martensitic layer on the surface of heat-treated alloy steels, about 0.001 in. (wikipedia.org)
  • A physics-based constitutive model involving material plasticity and grain refinement is developed based on both slip and twinning mechanisms and successfully implemented in a finite-element (FE) analysis with multiple cutting passes to predict the microstructure evolution by nanocrystalline grain refinement and other improvement of the surface integrity in the cryogenic machining of AZ31B Mg alloy. (asme.org)
  • Recently, cryogenic machining has also been conducted on AZ31B Mg alloy to improve the machined surface integrity of mechanical components made by this material [ 14 ]. (asme.org)
  • 15 ] unveiled the significant effect of cryogenic cooling on the surface integrity in the machined surface of AZ31B Mg alloy, in terms of better surface finish, the formation of UFG surface layer, increased microhardness and compressive residual stress. (asme.org)
  • In this study, the machinability of Ni based X-alloy was investigated using micro-EDM process with the aid of coated and uncoated tools. (scientific.net)
  • There are two mechanisms that may change an alloy's properties during heat treatment: the formation of martensite causes the crystals to deform intrinsically, and the diffusion mechanism causes changes in the homogeneity of the alloy. (wikipedia.org)
  • fracture
  • Often times, severe fracture can result when trying to achieve high material removal rates during machining of SiC or quartz due to their low fracture toughness. (deepakravindra.net)
  • Steel is a ductile material, which will behave elastically until it reaches yield (point 2 on the stress-strain curve), when it becomes plastic and will fail in a ductile manner (large strains, or extensions, before fracture at point 3 on the curve). (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • The analysis of the chemical composition of certain material only identifies what percentage of the elements exists in the material but does not identify particular characteristics about the geometry of the graphite nodules. (hindawi.com)
  • Products and methods for controlling the porosity and permeation of a web are provided using a curable thixotropic shear thinnable polymer composition that preferably encapsulates a plurality of fibers of the web and/or forms an internal layer within the web. (google.es)
  • The effective pore size of the web is controlled by regulating various factors such as the thickness of the polymer composition encapsulating the fibers and the thickness and placement of the internal polymer layer. (google.es)
  • The controlled placement is preferably performed by applying the polymer composition onto a surface of a moving web, shear thinning the composition and placing. (google.ca)
  • The controlled placement is preferably performed by applying the polymer composition onto a surface of a moving web, shear thinning the composition and placing it into the web, and curing the polymer composition. (google.ca)
  • or has both encapsulated structural elements and an internal layer of polymer composition. (google.ca)
  • constitutive
  • The Lagrangian formulation proposed in the FE code DEFORM 3D TM and the constitutive Johnson-Cook material model were utilized to simulate the chip formation and to predict the cutting reaction forces as well as the temperature in gun drilling process using carbide gun drills with two different diameters. (scientific.net)
  • To study the material behavior plenty of numerical models were developed, e.g. the microplane model for constitutive laws of materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • porosity
  • Additional measurements of web density, micro porosity, placement of an internal layer of polymer within the web, analysis of elements on the treated web, and the size of the polymer bead applied to the moving web are measured for controlling online the apparatus and the process of this invention. (google.ca)
  • high
  • Creep-feed grinding (CFG) was invented in Germany in the late 1950s by Edmund and Gerhard Lang. Unlike normal grinding, which is used primarily to finish surfaces, CFG is used for high rates of material removal, competing with milling and turning as a manufacturing process choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • This property of aluminium makes it particularly useful for a variety of electrical and electronic applications, for high voltage hardware, busbars, magnetic compasses, parabolic antennas, computer disks, etc. (azom.com)
  • This direct way of heating allows the application of very high heating and cooling rates, enhancing densification over grain growth promoting diffusion mechanisms (see Fig. 1), allowing maintaining the intrinsic properties of nanopowders in their fully dense products. (docplayer.net)
  • The question implies that some impenetrable layer of air exists around a wheel, so you need an extraordinarily high pressure to penetrate the air barrier, pressurize the fluid, and force it into the arc of cut. (sme.org)
  • Concrete has very favourable properties in fire - it is not adversely affected by fire until it reaches very high temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • silicon
  • The electrical properties of silicon and germanium enabled the establishment of the semiconductor industry in the 1950s and the development of solid-state electronics from the early 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • metal
  • Bismuth is a non-toxic heavy metal, and as legislation such as the EU Restriction of Hazardous Substances or the American Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act continue to regulate the amount of lead that can be in a product or environment, more lead-free alternative materials have been developed which maintain properties of their lead predecessors without containing lead. (wikipedia.org)
  • These particles deform easily within the crystal structure and across the surface of the metal to act as a low-shear solid lubricant in cases of low lubrication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficient metal machining requires access to data relating the machining parameters of a cutting tool to the work material for the given operation. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • Although the basic machining properties of titanium metal cannot be altered significantly, their effects can be greatly minimized by decreasing temperatures generated at the tool face and cutting edge. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat treatment provides an efficient way to manipulate the properties of the metal by controlling the rate of diffusion and the rate of cooling within the microstructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A metalloid is an element with properties in between, or that are a mixture of, those of metals and nonmetals, and which is therefore hard to classify as either a metal or a nonmetal. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • The surface integrity can be significantly improved by introducing the ultrafine grained (UFG) layer due to the severe plastic deformation (SPD) effect during cryogenic machining. (asme.org)
  • metallic
  • The machinability of these difficult-to-cut metallic materials with conventional turning (CT) techniques has seen a limited improvement over the years. (scientific.net)
  • Metallic materials consist of a microstructure of small crystals called "grains" or crystallites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most elements have a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties, and can be classified according to which set of properties is more pronounced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only the elements at or near the margins, lacking a sufficiently clear preponderance of either metallic or nonmetallic properties, are classified as metalloids. (wikipedia.org)
  • ductile
  • This research demonstrates that ductile regime Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) is possible on these materials to improve its surface quality without imparting subsurface damage. (deepakravindra.net)
  • Ductile Regime Single Point Diamond Turning of CVD-SiC Resulting in an Improved and Damage-Free Surface", 4th International Conference on Recent Materials & Processing, Penang, Malaysia, 2009. (deepakravindra.net)
  • aluminium
  • Aluminium also causes a highly beneficial hard layer of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) to be formed on the surface that is thin, transparent and self-healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particles of refractory material in contact with aluminium can detach and become inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminium is recognised as one of the material shaping the automobiles of the future. (azom.com)
  • Aluminium is the engineering material of choice for many applications. (azom.com)
  • In terms of strength to weight ratio, aluminium outperforms other materials. (azom.com)
  • Aluminium is a very economical material as an electrical conductor and is used in power transmission cables, bases of electric bulbs and in other electric fields. (azom.com)
  • Often
  • It is noteworthy that while the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally, heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toughness often increases as strength decreases, because a material that bends is less likely to break. (wikipedia.org)
  • finish
  • Diamond tools are used to achieve a superior surface finish (though they can only be used on non-ferrous materials). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to have a surface finish range of 32 to 500 microinches, but typically the range is 63 to 200 microinches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constraining the position of the drill bit using a drill jig with drill bushings Surface finish produced by drilling may range from 32 to 500 microinches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutting fluid is commonly used to cool the drill bit, increase tool life, increase speeds and feeds, increase the surface finish, and aid in ejecting chips. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the recent years EDM has gone through considerable changes especially with dielectric fluids, simple to complex geometry, meso to micro sized structures, nanometric surface finish, and so on. (scientific.net)
  • Its colour, quality, and finish depend upon the complexity of the structure, the material used for the form, and the skill of the worker. (wikipedia.org)
  • applications
  • This combination of properties makes them ideal candidates for tribological, semiconductor, MEMS and optoelectronic applications respectively. (deepakravindra.net)
  • This particular alloy's ability to hold polish made it useful as a light reflector or mirror material as well, which it continued to be used for into the twentieth century In the 1990s, autoparts manufacturer Federal Mogul began developing bismuth bronzes as an alternative to lead-containing bronzes because of increasing pressure on the removal of lead from both consumer and industrial applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though almost entirely replaced by steel in building structures, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications, including pipes, machine and car parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • nozzle
  • The simplest way to apply fluid properly is to design a fluid application nozzle that will ensure that the fluid velocity exiting the nozzle equals the surface speed of the grinding wheel. (sme.org)
  • wear
  • Cryogenic machining firstly has been considered as an eco-friendly and pollution-free machining technology of difficult-to-machine materials, in order to significantly increase the tool life and reduce tool wear due to the reduction of tool-tip temperature [ 9 , 10 ]. (asme.org)
  • Mangalloy is a unique non-magnetic steel with extreme anti-wear properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • steel
  • With further studies of this process, the improved surface integrity has been found in the machined surface of Inconel 718, AISI 4140, and 52100 steel [ 11 - 13 ]. (asme.org)
  • It has similar structural properties to steel, although its strength varies significantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other forms of steel, when stretched to the breaking point, the material does not "neck down" (get smaller at the weakest point) and then tear apart. (wikipedia.org)
  • metals
  • The most common industrial application of these metals are as bearings, however the material has been in use since the late nineteenth century as kitchenware and mirrors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • composite
  • A TiC-TiB2-SiC ternary eutectic composite were synthesized via the floating zone method using TiC, TiB2 and SiC powders as starting materials. (scientific.net)
  • Because it has essentially zero strength in tension, it is almost always used as reinforced concrete, a composite material. (wikipedia.org)
  • conventional
  • Since then it was known as a non-conventional machining process and its application was limited for processing only electrically conductive materials. (scientific.net)
  • common
  • A common way of representing such data is shown in Fig. 10.2, where tool life (as time) is plotted against cutting speed for a given cutting tool material at a constant feed and depth in relation to Ti-6Al-4V. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • Common structural materials are: Wrought iron is the simplest form of iron, and is almost pure iron (typically less than 0.15% carbon). (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • If the diameter of the specimen is significantly reduced, the strength of the material appears substantially greater. (sme.org)
  • Optical
  • Subsurface damage analysis was carried out on the machined samples using non-destructive methods such as Optical Microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy to show evidence that the chosen material removal method leaves a damage-free surface and subsurface. (deepakravindra.net)
  • roughness
  • The study explored the relationship between cutting parameters and machinability aspects such as the machined surface microhardness, roughness, and cutting forces. (hindawi.com)
  • The present study addresses surface roughness, flank wear and chip morphology during dry hard turning of AISI 4340 steel (49 HRC) using CVD (TiN/TiCN/Al 2 O 3 /TiN) multilayer coated carbide tool. (springeropen.com)
  • Three factors (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut) and three-level factorial experiment designs with Taguchi's L 9 Orthogonal array (OA) and statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed to investigate the consequent effect of these cutting parameters on the tool and workpiece in terms of flank wear and surface roughness. (springeropen.com)
  • The results shows that surface roughness and flank wear are statistically significant influenced by feed and cutting speed. (springeropen.com)
  • Therefore not only force and temperature distribution in the cutting zone are of great importance, but the study of surface roughness, tool wear and chip formation are also required for the betterment of productivity, the improvement of quality of the machined products and the establishment of a techno-economical and environmental friendly machining process. (springeropen.com)
  • deform
  • These particles deform easily within the crystal structure and across the surface of the metal to act as a low-shear solid lubricant in cases of low lubrication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, a systematic understanding of the machinability of SLM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V components is paramount to improve the productivity and product quality. (iust.org)
  • A metalloid is an element with properties in between, or that are a mixture of, those of metals and nonmetals, and which is therefore hard to classify as either a metal or a nonmetal. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • In accordance with the industry 4.0 concept, manufacturing process steps as well as the materials themselves are going to be more and more digitalized within the next years. (iust.org)
  • In summary, monitoring the elastic material properties of plate-like structures using Lamb waves is valuable for inline and non-destructive material characterization and manufacturing process control. (iust.org)
  • Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arbor milling is a cutting process which removes material via a multi-toothed cutter. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • An experimental and numerical study of stagnation point heat transfer for methane/air laminar flame impinging on a flat surface. (iitd.ac.in)
  • To study the material behavior plenty of numerical models were developed, e.g. the microplane model for constitutive laws of materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • excellent
  • In the conventional hard contact lenses, the materials comprising polymethyl methacrylate as main component have been used because of their excellent optical properties, high physical strength and good machinability. (google.com)
  • Recently, importance has been recognized on the supply of oxygen through contact lens for the metabolism of cornea, and the polymers containing silicon or fluorine have come to be used popularly as lens material because of their excellent oxygen permeability. (google.com)
  • Finishes
  • Surface finishes can range from 2 microinches (51 nm) to 125 microinches (3.2 μm), with typical finishes ranging from 8 to 32 microinches (0.20 to 0.81 μm). (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Future research aims to expand the fluidized bed technology platform to include the surface engineering of light metals, coating of powders and fibres, and recycling of materials. (edu.au)
  • Duplex
  • Dr Fabijanic's research has been focused on the development novel duplex surface treatments for ferrous metals. (edu.au)
  • Common
  • Common structural materials are: Wrought iron is the simplest form of iron, and is almost pure iron (typically less than 0.15% carbon). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common industrial application of these metals are as bearings, however the material has been in use since the late nineteenth century as kitchenware and mirrors. (wikipedia.org)
  • microinches
  • Constraining the position of the drill bit using a drill jig with drill bushings Surface finish produced by drilling may range from 32 to 500 microinches. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to have a surface finish range of 32 to 500 microinches, but typically the range is 63 to 200 microinches. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. (wikipedia.org)