• receptors
  • The carboxyl terminal cytoplasmic domains of both the β and γ subunits contain an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), common to all multisubunit immune recognition receptors, that is critical for cell activation. (hindawi.com)
  • Along with receptors that recognize IgE antibodies linked to allergens, the cells carry Toll-like receptors and other pathogen detectors. (rupress.org)
  • These endosomes housed antigens, IgE antibodies, and IgE receptors internalized from the mast cell's plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Mast cells can be stimulated to degranulate by allergens through cross-linking with immunoglobulin E receptors (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement proteins can activate membrane receptors on mast cells to exert various functions as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering of the intracellular domains of the cell-bound Fc receptors, which are associated with the cross-linked IgE molecules, causes a complex sequence of reactions inside the mast cell that lead to its activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fc receptors bind to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fc receptors are found on a number of cells in the immune system including phagocytes like macrophages and monocytes, granulocytes like neutrophils and eosinophils, and lymphocytes of the innate immune system (natural killer cells) or adaptive immune system (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Here, we describe an innovative approach for targeting mast cells in vitro and in vivo using antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping of the β-subunit of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRIβ) to eliminate surface high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) expression and function, rendering mast cells unresponsive to IgE-mediated activation. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, the researchers couldn't prove that the cells were actually touching, so they turned to in vitro studies. (rupress.org)
  • The first in vitro differentiation and growth of a pure population of mouse mast cells has been carried out using conditioned medium derived from concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Mast cell activation is initiated by the binding of oligomeric antigens to receptor-bound IgE, which crosslinks Fc ε RI and results in its aggregation. (hindawi.com)
  • The researchers utilized a technique known as exon skipping, a form of RNA splicing, to eliminate the portion of one of the IgE receptor gene's mRNA that is essential to making a protein which places the IgE receptor on the mast cell surface. (eurekalert.org)
  • By eliminating the expression of the IgE receptor on the surface of mast cells, we have identified an innovative and targeted approach with the potential to treat allergic inflammation in millions of patients worldwide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mast cells express a high-affinity receptor (FcεRI) for the Fc region of IgE, the least-abundant member of the antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classes of FcR's are also distinguished by the cells that express them (macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, T and B cells) and the signalling properties of each receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another FcR is expressed on multiple cell types and is similar in structure to MHC class I. This receptor also binds IgG and is involved in preservation of this antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrins function as the major cell receptor for extracellular matrix protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor is situated mainly on mesenchymal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor activation happens when collagen binds into preformed DDR dimers on cell membrane, when collagen is bound, a conformational change probably occurs, which causes cytosolic kinases to rotate to face each other, and their autophospohorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agents such as montelukast and zafirlukast block the actions of cysteinyl leukotrienes at the CysLT1 receptor on target cells such as bronchial smooth muscle via receptor antagonism. (wikipedia.org)
  • granules
  • Mature mast cells contain granules, which are basically packets of chemicals. (petmd.com)
  • Specifically, it is a type of granulocyte derived from the myeloid stem cell that is a part of the immune and neuroimmune systems and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells were first described by Paul Ehrlich in his 1878 doctoral thesis on the basis of their unique staining characteristics and large granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These granules also led him to the incorrect belief that they existed to nourish the surrounding tissue, so he named them Mastzellen (from German Mast, meaning 'fattening', as of animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochemical properties of the leukemic cells must be typical of mast cell derivation (presence of metachromatic granules staining with alpha-naphthyl chloroacetate esterase, but not with peroxidase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Allergy
  • Mast cell stabilizer medications include: β2-adrenergic agonists Cromoglicic acid Ketotifen Methylxanthines[citation needed] Olopatadine Mepolizumab Omalizumab Pemirolast Quercetin Nedocromil Azelastine Allergy medications: Know your options Castillo M, Scott NW, Mustafa MZ, Mustafa MS, Azuara-Blanco A (2015). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • Besides the roles in pathological conditions, the biological functions of mast cells include roles in innate immunity, involvement in host defense mechanisms against parasites, immunomodulation of the immune system, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • For boxers, some of these mast cells are part of their normal immune system response to allergies. (vetinfo.com)
  • As a result, mast cells are coated with IgE, which is produced by plasma cells (the antibody-producing cells of the immune system). (wikipedia.org)
  • dog's
  • If your vet suspects that your dog's mast cell disease has spread throughout his body, then biopsies of the spleen, liver, bone marrow and other organs might be necessary. (vetinfo.com)
  • tissue
  • In fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), a small carbon fiber electrode (micrometer scale) is inserted into living cells, tissue, or extracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunoregulatory cells
  • Recently, they have gained new importance as immunoregulatory cells with the recognition that they are a major source of cytokines and chemokines and play roles in both innate and adaptive immunities [ 7 , 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • researchers
  • Comprehensive and highly practical, Mast Cells: Methods and Protocols provides mast cell researchers with reproducible accounts of basic and advanced molecular and cellular techniques used in studying this fascinating, multifunctional cell. (springer.com)
  • The two types of cells hang out in the same locations in the body, and researchers have found evidence of indirect interactions between them ( 2 , 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • For example, the researchers found that the cells released different amounts of certain cytokines after contact. (rupress.org)
  • release
  • Initially, FSCV was successfully used for detection of electrochemically active biogenic amines release in chromaffin cells (adrenaline and noradrenaline), brain slices (5-HT, dopamine, norepinephrine) and in vivo in anesthetized or awake and behaving animals (dopamine). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • They occur when mast cells, a type of cell responsible for regulating inflammation and the repair of damaged tissues, mutate and grow out of control. (vetinfo.com)
  • Mast cells are present in nearly all vascularized tissues, but not the blood. (springer.com)
  • They reside within many tissues of the body, and dogs have a great deal of these cells located within their skin. (petmd.com)
  • Mast cells are present in most tissues characteristically surrounding blood vessels and nerves, and are especially prominent near the boundaries between the outside world and the internal milieu, such as the skin, mucosa of the lungs, and digestive tract, as well as the mouth, conjunctiva, and nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small masses are usually completely excised and sent to the pathology lab to confirm that the surrounding healthy tissues that were excised along with the tumor do not contain any cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases, a biopsy can remove the whole tumor, as long as the healthy tissues removed from just outside the tumor area do not contain any cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • A mast cell tumor dogs have a nodular skin growth consisting of cells that have high levels of histamine. (vetinfo.com)
  • This study will determine what growth factors are involved in promoting and inhibiting mastocytosis-an abnormal increase of mast cells in one or more organ systems. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This protocol is designed to examine those growth potentiating and inhibiting factors which regulate mast cell number in patients with mastocytosis, and to explore the molecular basis of the disease process in hopes of improving therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • activation
  • In Mast Cells: Methods and Protocols, hands-on experts describe in detail their best techniques for the isolation, culture, and study of both activation and signaling in human mast cells. (springer.com)
  • They control mainly cell proliferation, migration and adhesion, coagulation cascade activation and they affect ECM structure by regulation of MMP (matrix metalloproteinases). (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Despite their growing significance in physiological and pathological conditions, much still remains to be learned about mast cell biology. (hindawi.com)
  • A survey of mast cell biology offers insight into its history and the implications for adaptive immunity. (springer.com)
  • immunological
  • The two cell types formed a specialized contact called an immunological synapse. (rupress.org)
  • They also found that blocking integrins, which link cells together at immunological synapses, slashed the amount of material traveling between the cells, confirming the importance of contact for the transfer. (rupress.org)