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  • mammography
  • Mammographic screening is the ONLY technique that has been found to sufficiently reduce breast cancer mortality and while mass screening using mammography has been well established and implemented in developed countries, it has not been replicated in LMICs due to the huge financial and human resources that are required for the technique. (uct.ac.za)
  • Aside from the huge financial resources needed for mammography, the appropriateness of this screening technique among women from sub-Saharan Africa has become a point of debate. (uct.ac.za)
  • The argument against considering mammography as the gold standard for screening for breast cancer is hinged on the fact that the bulk of the women who need screening for breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa are between 30-45 years. (uct.ac.za)
  • Mammography is typically recommended and most effective when it is used to screen older women 50-69 years. (uct.ac.za)
  • The proposition to use ultrasonography for mass screening in LMICs where mammography is out of reach is therefore not to lower the standards of breast cancer diagnosis but rather an interim measure to fill the gap of unmet need until these countries have sufficient resources to afford more effective imaging screening tools. (uct.ac.za)
  • Also note that at best modest benefit of screening mammography has only been shown in older women. (uct.ac.za)
  • Screening mammography, used to detect breast cancer, is not recommended to men or to young women because they are more likely to be harmed by the test than to benefit from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitivity
  • Results: When individuals ranked in the top 10% of the HRA-F risk score was screened, the sensitivity was 57.9% and positive predictive value was 0.93% or 2.12% according to the above assumptions, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although ultrasonography is not up to par with the gold standard (i.e., lower specificity and sensitivity and higher false positives) it is still better than no screening at all. (uct.ac.za)
  • For these reasons, a test used in a screening program, especially for a disease with low incidence, must have good sensitivity in addition to acceptable specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalence
  • The prevalence of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 coronary risk factors did not change significantly between the two screens in either the total group of 1,817 adults or in the 872 adults in the educational program. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although originally thought to be linked to multiple developmental disorders histidinemia is now accepted as a relatively benign disorder, leading to a reduction in the prevalence of neonatal screening procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • acceptability
  • Incremental net benefit and acceptability of alternative health policies: a case study of mass screening for colorectal cancer ," Post-Print halshs-00656826, HAL. (repec.org)
  • Incremental net benefit and acceptability of alternative health policies: a case study of mass screening for colorectal cancer ," The European Journal of Health Economics , Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 13(3), pages 237-250, June. (repec.org)
  • newborns
  • Screening of 46 742 newborns yielded 1 false-positive result (in a heterozygous carrier), 1 patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and no apparent false negatives as judged by concurrent measurements of galactose and galactose-1-phosphate. (aaccjnls.org)
  • and an average of 1:12,000 observed in the neonatal screening of over 20 million newborns. (wikipedia.org)
  • stomach cancer
  • In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a mass screening program for stomach cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Nose town in Osaka, Japan. (uni-bonn.de)
  • From the matched analysis of the distribution of screening in case-control combination, the odds ratio of screened vs. unscreened among those who died from stomach cancer compared to those who did not was calculated as 0.595 (90% confidence interval: 0.338-1.045) among males and 0.382 (0.185-0.785) among females. (uni-bonn.de)
  • cancers
  • And this heterogeneity has an unfortunate implication: namely, screening tends to disproportionately detect slow-growing cancers (because they are accessible to be detected for a long period of time) and disproportionately miss the fast-growing cancers (because they are only accessible to be detected for a short period of time) - the very cancers we would most like to catch. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are the cancers for which screening has arguably the greatest beneficial impact. (wikipedia.org)
  • The likelihood of cancer being present: Screening is not normally useful for rare cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • Colorectal cancer in Italy: a review of current national and regional practice on screening and treatment ," The European Journal of Health Economics , Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 10(1), pages 41-49, January. (repec.org)
  • In 1968 the World Health Organization published guidelines on the Principles and practice of screening for disease, which often referred to as Wilson's criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • Swedish research suggests that mass screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients aged 75 or 76 appears to identify a significant percentage of those with untreated AF. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • This suggests that the method could be used to screen marine samples for toxins and thus give a warning of a potential bloom. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • programme
  • MA Screen: Acting breaks away from the traditional stage-focused training by providing a specific programme directly relevant to film and television. (arts.ac.uk)
  • Delivered in close working partnership with MA Screen: Directing, it features an extended programme of acting skills, two film projects which are professionally produced and shot on location and in CSM's film Studio and then edited and screened. (arts.ac.uk)
  • In 2008, with emergence of new genomic technologies, the WHO synthesised and modified these with the new understanding as follows: Synthesis of emerging screening criteria proposed over the past 40 years The screening programme should respond to a recognized need. (wikipedia.org)
  • There should be scientific evidence of screening programme effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The programme should promote equity and access to screening for the entire target population. (wikipedia.org)
  • program
  • An educational program aimed at reducing coronary risk factors was offered to the first 1,250 persons screened. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Long Beach Heart Association mass screening program for coronary risk factors was ineffective in reducing the number of coronary risk factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • In Orthodox Jewish circles, the organization Dor Yeshorim carries out an anonymous screening program so that couples who are likely to conceive a child with Tay-Sachs or another genetic disorder can avoid marriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • precise
  • Medical screening equipment must be capable of fast processing of many cases, but may not need to be as precise as diagnostic equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast
  • The use of Ultrasound scans has been advocated for in some LMICs such as Uganda as a stopgap measure to screen the most at risk women (30-45 years) of breast cancer in the absence of mammographic and other image screening services. (uct.ac.za)
  • There is therefore need to investigate the efficacy of ultrasonography for breast cancer in LMICs and subsequently estimate the resource requirements for implementing population level screening using this method. (uct.ac.za)
  • tests
  • As such, screening tests are somewhat unusual in that they are performed on persons apparently in good health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiphasic screening : It is the application of two or more screening tests to a large population at one time instead of carrying out separate screening tests for single diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are the worst forms of cancer and unfortunately often appear in the interval between screening tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • All cancer screening tests produce both false positives and false negatives, and most produce more false positives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • Background: Because early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus is detectable by endoscopic esophageal iodine staining with high accuracy and is easily treated by endoscopic mucosectomy, it is important to develop efficient methods for screening candidates for the endoscopic examination. (aacrjournals.org)
  • shown
  • The method they developed was validated as accurately measuring LMTs and was shown to reliably screen marine samples for LMTs - detecting several types of toxins. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • individuals
  • A possible approach to mass screening of high-risk individuals is to classify them according to exposure to risk factors such as heavy alcohol drinking and smoking. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • Purpose: To assess the performance of health risk appraisal (HRA) models in screening for esophageal SCC in the Japanese male population. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The goal of cancer screening is to provide useful health information which can guide medical treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • benefit
  • Cancer screening is not indicated unless life expectancy is greater than five years and the benefit is uncertain over the age of 70. (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • Students who come to MA Screen: Acting expect vocational training plus a high level of autonomous learning. (arts.ac.uk)
  • often
  • Screening interventions are not designed to be diagnostic, and often have significant rates of both false positive and false negative results. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • All children in three primary schools in Ghent, Belgium, were invited to take part in screening by wet combing (n=677, 3-11 years). (mysciencework.com)
  • cancer
  • Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening with computed tomography colonography according to a polyp size threshold for polypectomy ," Post-Print halshs-00480583, HAL. (repec.org)
  • Screening can also lead to false negative results, where an existing cancer is missed. (wikipedia.org)
  • criteria
  • Thanks Jennifer for the additional information, particularly on Wilson and Jungner classic screening criteria. (uct.ac.za)
  • identify
  • Supt. Tony Bayliss disclosed that scientists were attempting to build a DNA profile of the killer and did not rule out mass DNA screening if it were necessary to identify a suspect. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • And while the effects of algal blooms on shellfish have been studied extensively, less research on the screening of water to help predict blooms has been carried out. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • The research carried out by the Qingdao scientists looks to address the paucity of knowledge about the pollution levels in seawater by screening for lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs). (chromatographytoday.com)
  • proteins
  • Partial or whole protein complexes are first biochemically isolated using tagged components of the complex, followed by an identification of all co‐purified proteins using mass spectrometry. (embopress.org)
  • These displaying phages can then be screened against other proteins, peptides or DNA sequences, in order to detect interaction between the displayed protein and those other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, large libraries of proteins can be screened and amplified in a process called in vitro selection, which is analogous to natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • It's called the BrainGate Neural Interface System and is being developed in partnership with not only Stanford, but researchers and medical professionals at Massachusetts General Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Brown University and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (labroots.com)
  • Like the two-hybrid system, phage display is used for the high-throughput screening of protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the initial success in that company, the British government adopted a similar testing system for screening civil servants in 1855. (wikipedia.org)