• epithelial
  • A new monoclonal antibody to a cell-surface antigen that distinguishes luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the rat mammary gland. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The fully differentiated cells of the rat mammary parenchyma, the ductal epithelial, alveolar, and myoepithelial cells, are distinguished by their ultrastructure and by their accumulation of immunocytochemically detectable marker proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clonal epithelial stem cell lines, obtained from normal rat mammary glands or benign mammary tumors, differentiate under appropriate conditions along a pathway to droplet-cell/doming cultures of primative alveolarlike cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For example, in a study of aged female rhesus macaques, treatment with GH alone, IGF-1 alone, and the combination of GH and IGF-1, were found to produce mammary gland hyperplasia and increased mammary gland size and epithelial proliferation by 2-fold, 3- to 4-fold, and 4- to 5-fold, respectively, changes that were directly correlated with serum concentrations of GH and IGF-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the research to date on mammary epithelial differentiation has focused upon expression of milk protein genes, providing a somewhat distorted view of alveolar differentiation and secretory activation. (nih.gov)
  • Since we have previously observed changes in the estradiol/estrogen receptor (ER) system and a recent study found that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes are altered in the rat fetal alcohol NMU model, a custom PCR array was designed to examine expression of genes involved in EMT, estradiol/ER signaling, and tumorigenesis in tumor samples and mammary tissue collected from contralateral tumor-free glands. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Maintaining the correct polarized morphology of the lactiferous duct tree requires another essential component - mammary epithelial cells extracellular matrix (ECM) which, together with adipocytes, fibroblast, inflammatory cells, and others, constitute mammary stroma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammary epithelial ECM mainly contains myoepithelial basement membrane and the connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this stage, mammary gland development depends on systemic (and maternal) hormones, but is also under the (local) regulation of paracrine communication between neighboring epithelial and mesenchymal cells by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). (wikipedia.org)
  • This locally secreted factor gives rise to a series of outside-in and inside-out positive feedback between these two types of cells, so that mammary bud epithelial cells can proliferate and sprout down into the mesenchymal layer until they reach the fat pad to begin the first round of branching. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • However, by 15 weeks, ductal development has caught up with that of normal mice and the ducts have fully distributed throughout the mammary fat pad, although the ducts remain narrower than those of wild-type mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comparative study of transplantability of eight mammary gland tumors arising in inbred mice. (springer.com)
  • Dietary fat alters body composition, mammary development, and cytochrome p450 induction after maternal TCDD exposure in DBA/2J mice with low-responsive aryl hydrocarbon receptors. (nih.gov)
  • In D2 mice, HFD increased body mass and fat in off-spring, induced precocious mammary gland development, and increased AHR expression compared with mice given an LFD. (nih.gov)
  • Mice: non-fatal injury to the lactating mammary gland from 60 to 100 mg/kg Persin. (wikipedia.org)
  • pituitary gland
  • Moreover, breast development and size are normal (albeit delayed) in spite of GH/IGF-1 axis insufficiency, and in some the breasts may actually be large in relation to body size (which has been hypothesized to be due to increased secretion of prolactin caused by a drift phenomenon from somatomammotrophic cells in the pituitary gland with a high GH secretion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fats
  • Animal fats and oils are lipid materials derived from animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although many animal parts and secretions may yield oil, in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from rendered tissue fats obtained from livestock animals like pigs, chickens and cows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain substances such as goose fat produce a higher smoke point than other animal fats, but are still lower than many vegetable oils such as olive or avocado. (wikipedia.org)
  • In consumer meat products in the U.S., animal remains are found to be classified as Animal fats when the particle size of bone solids is more than 3 percent, protein content is less than 14 percent and or the product contains over 30 percent pure fat content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal fats are commonly consumed as part of a western diet in their semi-solid form as either milk, butter, lard, schmaltz, and dripping or more commonly as filler in factory produced meat, pet food and fast-food products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dairy products are animal secretions which contain varying levels of water, oils, fats and animal cells from circulatory and lymphatic systems such as blood and mammary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many animal fats and oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinogens
  • The institute partnered with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in a research project on "Chemicals and Breast Cancer: Building on National Initiatives for Chemical Safety Screening," which focused on the development of rapid in vitro screens for breast carcinogens in mammary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organs
  • Meat is an example of a direct product taken from an animal, which comes from muscle systems or from organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These effects occurred even in animals that had been ovariectomized and hypophysectomized, suggesting that amphenone B might be acting directly on the target organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In India there are 410 species, 186 genera, 45 families and 13 orders of which nearly 89 species are listed as threatened in the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Animals (IUCN 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • the effect is different depending upon the animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • ductal
  • The different cell types probably develop from primative ductal structures called terminal end buds, which are present in the developing rat mammary glands, and these structures contain relatively undifferentiated cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An animal model of Laron syndrome, the GHR knockout mouse, shows severely impaired ductal outgrowth at 11 weeks of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, GH itself also acts independently of IGF-1 to stimulate ductal development by upregulating estrogen receptor (ER) expression in mammary gland tissue, which is a downstream effect of mammary gland GHR activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • alters
  • These data indicate that fetal alcohol exposure alters expression of several genes in the mammary gland, which may be involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased risk in mammary tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cattle
  • In cattle there are normally two pairs, in sheep, goats and deer there is one pair, and in some animals such as pigs there are many pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • We investigated the consequences of high-fat diet (HFD) and AHR ligands on body composition, mammary development, and hepatic P450 expression. (nih.gov)
  • Key stages in mammary gland development. (nih.gov)
  • The drug is described as slightly estrogenic and potently antiestrogenic, and inhibits mammary gland development and suppresses prolactin levels in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • They not only help to support mammary basic structure, but also serve as a communicating bridge between mammary epithelia and their local and global environment throughout this organ's development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphenone B has also been found to produce progesterone-like progestogenic effects, including uterine hypertrophy and mammary lobuloalveolar development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact causes for the development of canine mammary tumors are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several hypotheses on the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of canine mammary tumors but a specific genetic mutation has not been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • In addition, amphenone B inhibits the production of thyroxine by a thiouracil-like mechanism, specifically via inhibition of organic binding of iodine and uptake of iodide by the thyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Amphenone B, or simply amphenone, also known as 3,3-bis(p-aminophenyl)butan-2-one, is an inhibitor of steroid hormone and thyroid hormone biosynthesis which was never marketed but has been used as a tool in scientific research to study corticosteroids and the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female
  • It is a common finding in older female dogs and cats that are not spayed, but they are found in other animals as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple studies have documented that spaying female dogs when young greatly decreases their risk of developing mammary neoplasia when aged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with female dogs left intact, those spayed before puberty have 0.5% of the risk, those spayed after one estrous cycle have 8.0% of the risk, and dogs spayed after two estrous cycles have 26.0% of the risk of developing mammary neoplasia later in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, unspayed female dogs have a seven times greater risk of developing mammary neoplasia than do those that are spayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female dogs who are not spayed or who are spayed later than the first heat cycle are more likely to develop mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • In addition, both human and animal studies have shown that exposure to PFOA or PFOS before birth is linked to low birth weight. (grassrootsinfo.org)
  • In D2 progeny, TCDD exposure decreased mammary terminal end bud size, and DMBA exposure decreased the number of terminal end buds. (nih.gov)
  • Animal studies show that exposure to persin leads to apoptosis in certain types of breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Malignant mammary tumors are divided into sarcomas, carcinosarcomas, inflammatory carcinomas (usually anaplastic carcinomas), and carcinomas (including adenocarcinomas), which are the most common. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, newer studies showed that certain gene expression patterns are associated with malignant behaviour of canine mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. (hindawi.com)
  • Previously, we found that mammary tumors collected at 23 weeks post-NMU injection were more ER negative in fetal alcohol animals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conversely, the progesterone-like effects of amphenone B on the mammary glands were found to persist even in adrenalectomized and ovariectomized animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Only in D2 progeny fed HFD did perinatal TCDD increase blood glucose and the size of mammary fat pads, while decreasing both branch elongation and the number of terminal end buds. (nih.gov)
  • occur
  • At doses of person above 100 mg/kg, necrosis of myocardial fibres may occur and areas of myocardial fibrosis can be observed in animals surviving for seven days. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • The ability of transgenic animals to produce complex, biologically active proteins in an efficient and economic manner is superior to those of bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and insects [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Animals are used as food either directly or indirectly by the products they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, birds and other animals lay eggs, which are often eaten, and bees produce honey, a reduced nectar from flowers, which is a popular sweetener in many cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary
  • Some cultures and people do not consume meat or animal food products for cultural, dietary, health, ethical, or ideological reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Such chimeras are composed of mammary cancer cells and host cells, that do or do not express stromelysin 3. (ugent.be)
  • Studies have shown that PFOS is linked to cancer, reproductive issues and developmental problems in animals. (grassrootsinfo.org)
  • cells
  • These mesenchymal cells can transform into a dense, mammary-specific mesenchyme, which later develop into connective tissue with fibrous threads, forming blood vessels and the lymph system. (wikipedia.org)
  • skin
  • Play media In both the wild and captivity, Campbell's dwarf hamsters scent-mark around their territories using Harderian glands, skin glands located behind the ears. (wikipedia.org)