• mammals
  • An udder is an organ formed of the mammary glands of female four-legged mammals, particularly ruminants such as cattle, goats, sheep and deer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • However, by 15 weeks, ductal development has caught up with that of normal mice and the ducts have fully distributed throughout the mammary fat pad, although the ducts remain narrower than those of wild-type mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary fat alters body composition, mammary development, and cytochrome p450 induction after maternal TCDD exposure in DBA/2J mice with low-responsive aryl hydrocarbon receptors. (nih.gov)
  • In D2 mice, HFD increased body mass and fat in off-spring, induced precocious mammary gland development, and increased AHR expression compared with mice given an LFD. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we describe a technique for localized delivery of reagents to the mammary gland at any stage in adulthood via intraductal injection into the nipples of mice. (jove.com)
  • The injections can be performed on live mice, under anesthesia, and allow for a non-invasive and localized drug delivery to the mammary gland. (jove.com)
  • Activation of YFP, ablation of p53, and expression of an oncogenic form of K-ras was achieved by the delivery of an adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase into the mammary duct of sexually mature, virgin female mice. (jove.com)
  • Mice: non-fatal injury to the lactating mammary gland from 60 to 100 mg/kg Persin. (wikipedia.org)
  • pituitary gland
  • Moreover, breast development and size are normal (albeit delayed) in spite of GH/IGF-1 axis insufficiency, and in some the breasts may actually be large in relation to body size (which has been hypothesized to be due to increased secretion of prolactin caused by a drift phenomenon from somatomammotrophic cells in the pituitary gland with a high GH secretion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fats
  • Seeds of plants are a good source of food for animals, including humans, because they contain the nutrients necessary for the plant's initial growth, including many healthful fats, such as omega fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal fats and oils are lipid materials derived from animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although many animal parts and secretions may yield oil, in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from rendered tissue fats obtained from livestock animals like pigs, chickens and cows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain substances such as goose fat produce a higher smoke point than other animal fats, but are still lower than many vegetable oils such as olive or avocado. (wikipedia.org)
  • In consumer meat products in the U.S., animal remains are found to be classified as Animal fats when the particle size of bone solids is more than 3 percent, protein content is less than 14 percent and or the product contains over 30 percent pure fat content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dairy products are animal secretions which contain varying levels of water, oils, fats and animal cells from circulatory and lymphatic systems such as blood and mammary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many animal fats and oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinogens
  • The institute partnered with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in a research project on "Chemicals and Breast Cancer: Building on National Initiatives for Chemical Safety Screening," which focused on the development of rapid in vitro screens for breast carcinogens in mammary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelium
  • Localized drug delivery and knock-down of genes within the mammary epithelium has been difficult to achieve due to the lack of appropriate targeting molecules that are independent of developmental stages such as pregnancy and lactation. (jove.com)
  • Organs
  • Meat is an example of a direct product taken from an animal, which comes from muscle systems or from organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These effects occurred even in animals that had been ovariectomized and hypophysectomized, suggesting that amphenone B might be acting directly on the target organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinogen
  • Further animal studies involving inhalation toxicity data has caused the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to classify 1,2-dichloropropane as a carcinogen and IDLH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cattle
  • In cattle there are normally two pairs, in sheep, goats and deer there is one pair, and in some animals such as pigs there are many pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • In addition, amphenone B inhibits the production of thyroxine by a thiouracil-like mechanism, specifically via inhibition of organic binding of iodine and uptake of iodide by the thyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Amphenone B, or simply amphenone, also known as 3,3-bis(p-aminophenyl)butan-2-one, is an inhibitor of steroid hormone and thyroid hormone biosynthesis which was never marketed but has been used as a tool in scientific research to study corticosteroids and the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In India there are 410 species, 186 genera, 45 families and 13 orders of which nearly 89 species are listed as threatened in the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Animals (IUCN 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • the effect is different depending upon the animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary
  • Some cultures and people do not consume meat or animal food products for cultural, dietary, health, ethical, or ideological reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids are important dietary sources of fuel for animals because, when metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • At doses of person above 100 mg/kg, necrosis of myocardial fibres may occur and areas of myocardial fibrosis can be observed in animals surviving for seven days. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. (hindawi.com)
  • produce
  • The ability of transgenic animals to produce complex, biologically active proteins in an efficient and economic manner is superior to those of bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and insects [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Animals are used as food either directly or indirectly by the products they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, birds and other animals lay eggs, which are often eaten, and bees produce honey, a reduced nectar from flowers, which is a popular sweetener in many cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Such chimeras are composed of mammary cancer cells and host cells, that do or do not express stromelysin 3. (ugent.be)
  • These mesenchymal cells can transform into a dense, mammary-specific mesenchyme, which later develop into connective tissue with fibrous threads, forming blood vessels and the lymph system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal studies show that exposure to persin leads to apoptosis in certain types of breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • In addition, both human and animal studies have shown that exposure to PFOA or PFOS before birth is linked to low birth weight. (grassrootsinfo.org)
  • In D2 progeny, TCDD exposure decreased mammary terminal end bud size, and DMBA exposure decreased the number of terminal end buds. (nih.gov)
  • blood
  • Only in D2 progeny fed HFD did perinatal TCDD increase blood glucose and the size of mammary fat pads, while decreasing both branch elongation and the number of terminal end buds. (nih.gov)
  • protein
  • As shown in Table 2 , protein production costs are substantially lower for transgenic animals than for cell culture. (hindawi.com)
  • skin
  • Play media In both the wild and captivity, Campbell's dwarf hamsters scent-mark around their territories using Harderian glands, skin glands located behind the ears. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, and have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrothorax and/or pulmonary oedema may be present in more severely affected animals. (wikipedia.org)