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  • liver
  • Serotonin (5-HT) affects expression of liver metabolic enzymes and mammary gland glucose transporters during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. (nih.gov)
  • 5-hydroxytryptamine) precursors to increase 5-HT production during the transition from pregnancy to lactation and the effects this has on maternal energy metabolism in the liver and mammary gland. (nih.gov)
  • Serum (pre and post-partum), milk (daily), liver and mammary gland tissue (d9) were collected. (nih.gov)
  • 5-HT levels were increased in mammary gland and liver of both groups. (nih.gov)
  • Feeding 5-HTP resulted in increased mRNA expression of key gluconeogenic and glycolytic enzymes in liver and glucose transporters 1 and 8 (GLUT-1, -8) in the mammary gland. (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that increasing 5-HT production during the transition from pregnancy to lactation increases mRNA expression of enzymes involved in energy metabolism in the liver, and mRNA abundance and distribution of glucose transporters within the mammary gland. (nih.gov)
  • We set out to determine if feeding precursors for 5-HT would not only increase circulating concentrations of 5-HT, but also whether the synthesis of 5-HT in the mammary gland and liver were also increased. (nih.gov)
  • Data from animal studies show tumor growth in the liver and mammary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of GH in ductal development has been found to be mostly mediated by its induction of the secretion of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which occurs both systemically (mainly originating from the liver) and locally in the mammary fat pad through activation of the growth hormone receptor (GHR). (wikipedia.org)
  • pituitary gland
  • Moreover, breast development and size are normal (albeit delayed) in spite of GH/IGF-1 axis insufficiency, and in some the breasts may actually be large in relation to body size (which has been hypothesized to be due to increased secretion of prolactin caused by a drift phenomenon from somatomammotrophic cells in the pituitary gland with a high GH secretion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • However, by 15 weeks, ductal development has caught up with that of normal mice and the ducts have fully distributed throughout the mammary fat pad, although the ducts remain narrower than those of wild-type mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice: non-fatal injury to the lactating mammary gland from 60 to 100 mg/kg Persin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organs
  • Meat is an example of a direct product taken from an animal, which comes from muscle systems or from organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These effects occurred even in animals that had been ovariectomized and hypophysectomized, suggesting that amphenone B might be acting directly on the target organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In India there are 410 species, 186 genera, 45 families and 13 orders of which nearly 89 species are listed as threatened in the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Animals (IUCN 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • the effect is different depending upon the animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • For each round of pregnancy, the mammary gland undergoes sequential cycles of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and alveolar ducts form and grow, differentiate to produce milk and, after lactation, cease, revert and regress to the pre-pregnancy state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tissue
  • Although many animal parts and secretions may yield oil, in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from rendered tissue fats obtained from livestock animals like pigs, chickens and cows. (wikipedia.org)
  • ductal
  • An animal model of Laron syndrome, the GHR knockout mouse, shows severely impaired ductal outgrowth at 11 weeks of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • For example, in a study of aged female rhesus macaques, treatment with GH alone, IGF-1 alone, and the combination of GH and IGF-1, were found to produce mammary gland hyperplasia and increased mammary gland size and epithelial proliferation by 2-fold, 3- to 4-fold, and 4- to 5-fold, respectively, changes that were directly correlated with serum concentrations of GH and IGF-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cattle
  • In cattle there are normally two pairs, in sheep, goats and deer there is one pair, and in some animals such as pigs there are many pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • In addition, amphenone B inhibits the production of thyroxine by a thiouracil-like mechanism, specifically via inhibition of organic binding of iodine and uptake of iodide by the thyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • cycles
  • Mammary glands develop during different growth cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with female dogs left intact, those spayed before puberty have 0.5% of the risk, those spayed after one estrous cycle have 8.0% of the risk, and dogs spayed after two estrous cycles have 26.0% of the risk of developing mammary neoplasia later in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • fats
  • Animal fats and oils are lipid materials derived from animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain substances such as goose fat produce a higher smoke point than other animal fats, but are still lower than many vegetable oils such as olive or avocado. (wikipedia.org)
  • In consumer meat products in the U.S., animal remains are found to be classified as Animal fats when the particle size of bone solids is more than 3 percent, protein content is less than 14 percent and or the product contains over 30 percent pure fat content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal fats are commonly consumed as part of a western diet in their semi-solid form as either milk, butter, lard, schmaltz, and dripping or more commonly as filler in factory produced meat, pet food and fast-food products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many animal fats and oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • The drug is described as slightly estrogenic and potently antiestrogenic, and inhibits mammary gland development and suppresses prolactin levels in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • They not only help to support mammary basic structure, but also serve as a communicating bridge between mammary epithelia and their local and global environment throughout this organ's development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphenone B has also been found to produce progesterone-like progestogenic effects, including uterine hypertrophy and mammary lobuloalveolar development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female
  • It is a common finding in older female dogs and cats that are not spayed, but they are found in other animals as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple studies have documented that spaying female dogs when young greatly decreases their risk of developing mammary neoplasia when aged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, unspayed female dogs have a seven times greater risk of developing mammary neoplasia than do those that are spayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • As shown in Table 2 , protein production costs are substantially lower for transgenic animals than for cell culture. (hindawi.com)
  • Finally, phosphorylated 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK), a known regulator of intracellular energy status, was elevated in mammary glands of 5-HTP fed dams. (nih.gov)
  • produce
  • Animals are used as food either directly or indirectly by the products they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, birds and other animals lay eggs, which are often eaten, and bees produce honey, a reduced nectar from flowers, which is a popular sweetener in many cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • Amphenone B, or simply amphenone, also known as 3,3-bis(p-aminophenyl)butan-2-one, is an inhibitor of steroid hormone and thyroid hormone biosynthesis which was never marketed but has been used as a tool in scientific research to study corticosteroids and the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • skin
  • Play media In both the wild and captivity, Campbell's dwarf hamsters scent-mark around their territories using Harderian glands, skin glands located behind the ears. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • We have used a murine mammary epithelial stem-like cell line (HC11) and made a thorough investigation of global gene-expression changes during stepwise differentiation using dual-color comparative microarray technique. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We correlate the alterations to in vivo mammary gland differentiation, and describe novel changes in nuclear receptor gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • prostate gland
  • Prostate cancer is associated with urinary dysfunction as the prostate gland surrounds the prostatic urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the vas deferens deposits seminal fluid into the prostatic urethra, and secretions from the prostate gland itself are included in semen content, prostate cancer may also cause problems with sexual function and performance, such as difficulty achieving erection or painful ejaculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas testosterone is the major circulating androgen, DHT is the major androgen in the prostate gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, local concentrations of DHT in the prostate gland are 5- to 10-fold higher than circulating levels of DHT. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to high expression of 5α-reductase in the prostate gland, which very efficiently catalyzes the formation of DHT from testosterone such that over 90% of intraprostatic testosterone is converted into DHT. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, AR signaling is exceptionally high in the prostate gland, and the effectiveness of bicalutamide monotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer, which is roughly equivalent to that of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, demonstrates a capacity of bicalutamide to strongly antagonize the AR. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, GnRH analogues achieve only a 50 to 60% reduction in levels of DHT in the prostate gland, and the combination of a GnRH analogue and bicalutamide is significantly more effective than either modality alone in the treatment of prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Princeton University Press, Princeton 1992 The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal, ISBN 0-06-098403-1 1997 Why is Sex Fun? (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Studies are currently in progress using a variety of biochemical, immunological and molecular biological approaches to further elucidate the functions, expression, localization and physiological roles of specific PMCA isoforms and their regulation during normal animal cell development and in proceseses such as cell movement and attachment - linked to cell contact mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. (uky.edu)
  • Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • A curated database of ageing and life history information in animals, including extensive longevity records. (ageing-map.org)
  • known
  • The noticeably long tongue may be used to extract insects from crevices, but very little is known of this animal and its natural history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes
  • Changes within the gland, therefore, directly affect urinary function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast changes specifically included enlargement and a sense of fullness, increased sensitivity and pigmentation of the nipples as well as nipple erection, tingling within the breast mammary glandular tissue, and aching and soreness of the breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • seven
  • At doses of person above 100 mg/kg, necrosis of myocardial fibres may occur and areas of myocardial fibrosis can be observed in animals surviving for seven days. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • The moulds increased in light, until externally they appeared every three or four animals, and at expired were various. (kenlyen.com)
  • In addition to aromatization of androstenedione, estrone is also formed reversibly from estradiol by the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in various tissues, including the liver, uterus, and mammary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Small whales, such as belugas, are sometimes kept in captivity and trained to perform tricks, but breeding success has been poor and the animals often die within a few months of capture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cats flick their tails in an oscillating, snake-like motion, or abruptly from side to side, often just before pouncing on an object or animal in what looks like "play" hunting behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals in the Mammaliaformes clade are often called mammaliaforms, without the e. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • They have claimed that progressives have had these kinds of issues with policies involving genetically modified foods, vaccination, overpopulation, use of animals in research, nuclear energy, and other topics. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • While all anatomical features of equids are described in the same terms as for other animals by the International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature in the book Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, there are many horse-specific colloquial terms used by equestrians. (wikipedia.org)