• proteins
  • inset) Western blot for the indicated proteins after fractionation of cells into membranes (M) and cytosol (C). Values are shown in kilodaltons. (rupress.org)
  • C-K) Staining of MPR46, TIP47, and the indicated sorting proteins in HeLa cells at steady state (C-H) or after oleic acid feeding (I-K). Colocalization is indicated in yellow. (rupress.org)
  • We demonstrate a simple, low cost and disposable microfluidic fluorescence activated cell sorting system (μFACS) for directed evolution of fluorescent proteins (FP) and FP-based calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) indicators. (rsc.org)
  • Keratins are cytoskeletal proteins that are the major components of intermediate filaments in epithelial cells however, their role in bacterial infection has been disregarded. (frontiersin.org)
  • For subculture cells may be detached by one of several methods including trypsin treatment to break down the proteins responsible for surface adherence, chelating calcium ions with EDTA which disrupts some protein adherence mechanisms, or mechanical methods like repeated washing or use of a cell scraper. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Atg proteins regulate autophagy, which is a lysosomal degradation pathway required for maintaining cell health, surviving periods of nutrient deprivation and also plays a role in cancer, neurodegeneration and immune responses to a diverse range of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address these concerns, expressions systems using multiple eukaryotic cells were developed for applications requiring the proteins be conformed as in, or closer to eukaryotic organisms: cells of plants (i.e. tobacco), of insects or mammalians (i.e. bovines) are transfected with genes and cultured in suspension and even as tissues or whole organisms, to produce fully folded proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial expression of key proteins required for immortality, for example telomerase which prevents degradation of chromosome ends during DNA replication in eukaryotes Hybridoma technology, specifically used for the generation of immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines, where an antibody-producing B cell is fused with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In growth factor-deprived cells, however, blocking Rab7 function prevented the clearance of glucose and amino acid transporter proteins from the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organism
  • In particular, pathogens usurp the actin cytoskeleton function to strongly adhere to the host cell surface, to induce plasma membrane remodeling allowing invasion and to spread from cell to cell and disseminate to the whole organism. (frontiersin.org)
  • An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immortalized cell line should not be confused with stem cells, which can also divide indefinitely, but form a normal part of the development of a multicellular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines find use in biotechnology where they are a cost-effective way of growing cells similar to those found in a multicellular organism in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living, and also known as the building block of life.Etymology of "cell" - Comes from the Latin cellula, meaning, a small room. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vital functions of an organism occur within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues - A collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Here enucleated recipient cells are treated with cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B makes the cytoplasm of the oocytes more fluid and makes it possible to aspirate the nuclear genome of the oocyte within a small vesicle of plasma membrane into a micro-needle. (wikipedia.org)
  • NER preferentially removes (6-4)PP more rapidly than it removes CPD from the genome in human and rodent cells [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Puck's key work ultimately made modern genetics, such as the human genome and other mammalian genome projects, possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • 264.7
  • The cells will often have a preferred range of confluencies for optimal growth, for example a mammalian cell line like HeLa or Raw 264.7 generally prefer confluencies over 10% but under 100%, and subculture will normally try to keep the cells in this range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major examples include human HeLa cells that were obtained from a cervical cancer, mouse Raw 264.7 cells that were subjected to mutagenesis and then selected for cells which are able to undergo division. (wikipedia.org)
  • transiently
  • Design and Methods We studied hemojuvelin mutants of N-terminus (C80R, S85P, G99V, ΔRGD) and GDPH-consensus site for autoproteolysis (A168D, F170S, D172E) transiently expressed in HeLa cells, using electron microscopy, morphometric analysis and binding assays at different time points. (haematologica.org)
  • yeast
  • Commonly used protein production systems include those derived from bacteria, yeast,baculovirus/insect, mammalian cells, and more recently filamentous fungi such as Myceliophthora thermophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • To combine the high yield/productivity and scalable protein features of bacteria and yeast, and advanced epigenetic features of plants, insects and mammalians systems, other protein production systems are developed using unicellular eukaryotes (i.e. non-pathogenic 'Leishmania' cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Compared to synthetic dye-based Ca 2+ indicators, fluorescent protein (FP)-based Ca 2+ indicators offer a number of advantages for Ca 2+ imaging in live cells and tissues. (rsc.org)
  • It can lyse the toughest bacterial cells and spores as well as yeasts, fungi, moulds, some plant and some animal tissues directly. (gelcompany.com)
  • somatic cell
  • Cancer occurs when a somatic cell which normally cannot divide undergoes mutations which cause de-regulation of the normal cell cycle controls leading to uncontrolled proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection
  • The dose of colibactin delivered to the cells varies with the number of infecting bacteria per cell (multiplicity of infection, or MOI). (bio-protocol.org)
  • During blood stage infection, malaria parasites invade, mature, and replicate within red blood cells (RBCs). (jove.com)
  • Humans
  • Cell biology research extends to both the great diversities of single-celled organisms like bacteria and the complex specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • melanoma cells
  • For example, supposed thyroid lines were actually melanoma cells, supposed prostate tissue was actually bladder cancer, and supposed normal uterine cultures were actually breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • This unit describes the preparation of nuclear extracts from cultured cells and optimized production of transcriptionally active extracts from HeLa cells. (currentprotocols.com)
  • It appeared that these cells were created through progressive nuclear addition instead of nuclear division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The separate nuclei are bound by a nuclear bridge and in binucleated cells the centrioles are doubled. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • Mammalian Drf3 contains a CRIB-like motif within its GBD for binding to Cdc42, which is required for Cdc42 to activate and guide Drf3 towards the cell cortex where it remodels the actin skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has therefore been speculated that this gene may have a role in the regulation of actin polymerization in hair cells of the inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Adapted for the book 'Cell Biology by the Numbers' link with changes from U. Alon, "Introduction to Systems Biology", CRC Press 2006. (harvard.edu)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trends in Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, a subculture is a new cell or microbiological culture made by transferring some or all cells from a previous culture to fresh growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortal cell lines are a very important tool for research into the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This simplifies analysis of the biology of cells which may otherwise have a limited lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can alter the biology of the cell and must be taken into consideration in any analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology can be described as all of the following: Branch of science - A systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology - (formerly cytology) The study of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular differentiation - A concept in developmental biology whereby less specialized cells become a more specialized cell type in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmids
  • Most conjugative plasmids have systems ensuring that the recipient cell does not already contain a similar element. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that lack F plasmids are called F-negative or F-minus (F−) and as such can function as recipient cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell culture that contains in its population cells with non-integrated F-plasmids usually also contains a few cells that have accidentally integrated their plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • line
  • The anticancer activity of the same was studied on U937 cell line. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study clearly exhibited anticancer activity of the extract on U937 cell line. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, I want to be able to select for the transfected cells so I can maintain the plasmid in the cell line indefinitely. (bio.net)
  • He developed the CHO cell line from Chinese hamster ovarian cells for this work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, subculture is from a culture of a certain volume into fresh growth medium of equal volume, this allows long-term maintenance of the cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the original method for generating an immortalized cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Introduction of a viral gene that partially deregulates the cell cycle (e.g., the adenovirus type 5 E1 gene was used to immortalize the HEK 293 cell line). (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximate
  • It is often important to record the approximate number of divisions cells have had in culture by recording the number of passages or subcultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Here, Human PBMCs were used as the normal cell control to identify selective anticancer activity of the extract against U937 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, it was found that CB has an inhibitory effect on the uptake of sucrose-3H by chang-strain human liver cells and in CB-treated cells alterations in the appearance and location of microfilaments were observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work allowed the genetics of human and other mammalian cells to be studied in detail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insect or mammal cell lines are used when human-like splicing of mRNA is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origins of some immortal cell lines, for example HeLa human cells, are from naturally occurring cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are at least several hundred distinct cell types in the adult human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocytosis
  • Ras-related protein Rab-7a is involved in endocytosis, which is a process that brings substances into a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of endocytosis works by folding the cell membrane around a substance outside of the cell (for example a protein) and then forms a vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Note that these are crude characteristic values for happily dividing cells of the common lab strains. (harvard.edu)
  • lines
  • Dear Netters, I wish to express a clone of interest in mammalian cell lines. (bio.net)
  • Cell lines and microorganisms cannot be held in culture indefinitely due to the gradual rise in toxic metabolites, use of nutrients and increase in cell number due to growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • WIPI2 mRNA is readily detectable in several commonly used laboratory cell lines (HEK293A, HeLa, A431) and several cancer cell lines, while WIPI1 expression is limited to cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalised cell lines have also found uses in biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various immortal cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of them are normal cell lines (e.g. derived from stem cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other immortalised cell lines are the in vitro equivalent of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalised cell lines have undergone similar mutations allowing a cell type which would normally not be able to divide to be proliferated in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines can also be cloned giving rise to a clonal population which can, in turn, be propagated indefinitely. (wikipedia.org)
  • While immortalized cell lines often originate from a well-known tissue type, they have undergone significant mutations to become immortal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, cell lines can change genetically over multiple passages, leading to phenotypic differences among isolates and potentially different experimental results depending on when and with what strain isolate an experiment is conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several methods for generating immortalized cell lines: Isolation from a naturally occurring cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several examples of immortalized cell lines, each with different properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most immortalized cell lines are classified by the cell type they originated from or are most similar to biologically. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996) found that RAB7a was expressed as 1.7- and 2.5-kb transcripts in all cell lines examined but that there was a large difference in the total amount of RAB7a mRNA among the cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Extracts prepared from the isolated nuclei of cultured cells have been instrumental in dissecting the mechanisms by which transcription and mRNA processing occur. (currentprotocols.com)
  • lipid
  • A and B) Staining of HeLa cells for MPR46 (green), TIP47 (red), and neutral lipid (blue) at steady state (A) or after oleic acid feeding (B). Arrows point to small TIP47-positive structures. (rupress.org)
  • The lipid bilayer is a critical component of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • compartments
  • 3 Furthermore, with appropriate gene promoters and trafficking signals, FP-based Ca 2+ indicators can be expressed only in specific cell types or targeted to specific subcellular compartments. (rsc.org)
  • Membrane
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vesicle is then brought into the cell and cleaved from the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Rab7 was inhibited, growth factor-deprived cells maintained their mitochondrial membrane potential and displayed prolonged, growth factor-independent, nutrient-dependent cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Then, the cells are washed to remove the bacteria and further incubated three days with antibiotics, to allow the development of the cytopathic phenotype associated with the DNA damage. (bio-protocol.org)
  • 2013). The microscopic observation of the cell morphology reveals the cellular response to the genotoxic insult, with reduced cell numbers and a striking giant cells phenotype (called megalocytosis) due to the cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence. (bio-protocol.org)
  • expression
  • There are many ways to introduce foreign DNA to a cell for expression, and many different host cells may be used for expression - each expression system has distinct advantages and liabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of growth factor, growth factor inhibition of mammalian Rab7 had no effect on nutrient transporter expression in mouse pro-B-lymphocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Using siRNAs originally designed and an alkaline sucrose density gradient sedimentation technique, we verified the involvement of several polymerases in ultraviolet (UV) light-induced TLS in HeLa cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • stem cells
  • Deficiency of lig4 in pluripotent stem cells impairs Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and results in accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks and enhanced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lig4 deficiency in the mouse causes a progressive loss of haematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow cellularity during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensitivity of haematopoietic stem cells to lig4 deficiency suggests that lig4-mediated NHEJ is a key determinant of the ability of stem cells to maintain themselves against physiological stress over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The alternative, performing an analysis on primary cells from multiple tissue donors, does not have this advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • The authors concluded that RAB7 functions as a proapoptotic protein by limiting cell-autonomous nutrient uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • percentage
  • Actually, TIP47 was almost undetectable in HeLa cells at steady state, and only a low percentage of cells showed TIP47 staining of dot-like structures ( Fig. 1 A , arrows). (rupress.org)