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  • factor
  • Experimental approach: The effects of PGE2 and EP-selective agonists on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) generation from macrophages were evaluated. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • colony stimul
  • Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), is a secreted cytokine which influences hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into macrophages or other related cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophage colony-stimulating factor has been shown to interact with PIK3R2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts that functions as a cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which specifically promotes neutrophil proliferation and maturation, GM-CSF affects more cell types, especially macrophages and eosinophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is glycosylated in its mature form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulocyte
  • The mechanism by which the spleen was able to maintain its reservoir capacity throughout tumor progression involved, in part, local accumulation in the splenic red pulp of typically rare extramedullary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, notably granulocyte and macrophage progenitors, which produced CD11b + Ly-6C hi monocytic and CD11b + Ly-6G hi granulocytic cells locally. (pnas.org)
  • Splenic granulocyte and macrophage progenitors and their descendants were likewise identified in clinical specimens. (pnas.org)
  • Granulocyte - macrophage colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF) stimulates M1 too. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can stimulate tumor growth ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ), and their density is associated with adverse outcomes and shorter survival in several cancer types, including breast cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and lung adenocarcinoma ( 5 ⇓ ⇓ - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • M1 macrophages are microbicidal and tumoricidal, and stimulate adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • When at the site, the first wave of neutrophils, after the process of aging and after the first 48 hours, stimulate the appearance of the macrophages whereby these macrophages will then ingest the aged neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • Although they have been used in ecology texts as recently as 2002, the terms macrophage and microphage today are primarily used to describe two different types of white blood cells in the vertebrate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • report that lethal factor (LF) produced by the bacterium specifically inactivates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade only in activated mouse macrophages, thus causing cell death. (sciencemag.org)
  • whereas
  • M1 macrophages have the unique ability to metabolize arginine to the "killer" molecule nitric oxide , whereas rodent M2 macrophages have the unique ability to metabolize arginine to the "repair" molecule ornithine . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13 are defined as M2a, whereas macrophages stimulated with LPS and apoptotic cells as M2b and macrophages stimulated with IL-10, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) or glucocorticoids as M2c. (wikipedia.org)
  • peritoneal
  • Dave: To isolate resident peritoneal macrophages, kill the mouse, and immediately inject the peritoneum with about 5 mls of pre-warmed HBSS or other media. (bio.net)
  • cells
  • The peptide hormone hepcidin is produced in the liver and promotes hypoferremia by simulating degradation of the iron channel ferroportin, thus reducing both the uptake of dietary iron and the release of iron into the bloodstream by the macrophages that recycle red blood cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The result was benign appearing follicular cells and macrophages. (medhelp.org)
  • follicular cells and macrophages I just had a needle biopsy of two nodules on each side of my thyroid. (medhelp.org)
  • Macrophages are important cells of the immune system that are formed in response to an infection or accumulating damaged or dead cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Macrophages are large, specialized cells that recognize, engulf and destroy target cells. (news-medical.net)
  • For example, macrophages present in the brain are termed microglia and in the liver sinusoids they are called Kupffer cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Our immune systems can change as we get older, and now researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that as immune cells called macrophages age, the changes in those older cells can increase the risks for age-related macular degeneration, a major cause of blindness in the united states. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the testis for example, macrophages have been shown to be able to interact with Leydig cells by secreting 25-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol that can be converted to testosterone by neighbouring Leydig cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar effect provoked interaction of macrophages and B-1 B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages are versatile cells that play many roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages themselves produce IFN-γ as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the large number of tumor cells and the derived factors present within the tumour microenvironment (TME) act to attenuate the tumoricidal activity function of macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone-marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) refers to macrophage cells that are generated in a research laboratory from mammalian bone marrow cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MIF is released from T-cells and macrophages, and acts within the neuroendocrine system. (wikipedia.org)
  • angiogenesis
  • Tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) are typical for their protumoural functions like promotion of cancer cell motility, metastasis formation and angiogenesis and their formation is dependent on microenvironmetal factors which are present in developing tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically, in 128 patients in the first or second stage of breast cancer it was found that more patients with M2 tumor-associated macrophages had a higher degree of histology, more angiogenesis, and worse overall survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Mregs express high levels of co-stimulatory molecules (CD86) and MHC Class II, they have the highest expression of these molecule in comparison with the other population of macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • This study not only adds iron homeostasis to the list of metabolic processes influenced by ERRγ but also suggests that preventing or reversing the iron accumulation that occurs in macrophages because of IL-6-induced hypoferremia might be a way to treat infection by S . typhimurium and other intracellular pathogens. (sciencemag.org)
  • A macrophage of a mouse stretching its "arms" ( pseudopodia ) to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Macrophages can digest more than 100 bacteria before they finally die due to their own digestive compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • M1 macrophages are irreplaceable during acute infectious diseases and provide host protection against intracellular bacteria or viruses by production of nitric oxide (NO) or reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages that destroy foreign material, such as bacteria. (wikipedia.org)