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  • pulmonary
  • Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung syndrome caused by the accumulation of surfactants in the alveoli. (jimmunol.org)
  • Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare cause of chronic interstitial lung disease, characterised by accumulation of pulmonary surfactant, respiratory insufficiency and an increased incidence of infections. (scielo.org.za)
  • Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a syndrome characterised by respiratory failure caused by pulmonary surfactant accumulation and resulting in respiratory insuiciency and an increased incidence of infections. (scielo.org.za)
  • Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare diffuse lung disease first described by Rosen et al in1958. (bmj.com)
  • Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease in which an abnormal accumulation of pulmonary surfactant occurs within the alveoli (microscopic air sacs in the lung), interfering with the lungs' ability to exchange oxygen from the air, and carbon dioxide from the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the cause of PAP is not entirely understood, a major breakthrough in the understanding of the cause of the disease came by the chance observation that mice bred for experimental study to lack a hematologic growth factor known as granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) developed a pulmonary syndrome of abnormal surfactant accumulation resembling human PAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormalities in CSF2 receptor alpha have been shown to cause hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first advance in the treatment of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis came in November 1960, when Dr. Jose Ramirez-Rivera at the Veterans' Administration Hospital in Baltimore applied repeated "segmental flooding" as a means of physically removing the accumulated alveolar material. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • The current gold standard of PAP diagnosis involves histopathological examination of alveolar specimens obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lung
  • The demonstration by Upham et al 1 that human alveolar macrophages selectively inhibit proliferation of T cells by secretion of unidentified effector molecules raises the question as to whether pathological processes in the lung characterised by extensive macrophage recruitment or activation can have a systemic effect on T cell development. (bmj.com)
  • As inferred by Dr Grange, these T cells are subjected to the powerful downregulatory influence of lung macrophages during their transit through lung tissue, resulting in a variety of functional changes including loss of proliferation capacity. (bmj.com)
  • 1-6 The suggestion that amplification of this process during inflammatory diseases characterised by enhanced lung macrophage recruitment/activation may result in significant effects on the overall recirculating T cell compartment is thus worthy of more detailed investigation. (bmj.com)
  • Despite its name, dendritic cell specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is not only expressed on dendritic cells but also on specialized macrophages in the placenta and lung. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Given this finding, we hypothesized that Nox2 in a resident cell in the lung, specifically the alveolar macrophage, has an essential anti-inflammatory role. (springer.com)
  • Both genotypes demonstrated neutrophil sequestration in the lung during SIRS, but neutrophil migration into the alveolar space was only present in the gp91 phox-/y mice. (springer.com)
  • Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α gene expression and protein secretion were higher in whole-lung digest from uninjected gp91 phox-/y mice compared to the WT mice. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, isolated lung polymorphonuclear neutrophils migrate to BALf obtained from gp91 phox-/y mice, further providing evidence of a cell-specific anti-inflammatory role for Nox2 in alveolar macrophages. (springer.com)
  • We speculate that Nox2 represses the development of inflammatory lung injury by modulating chemokine expression by the alveolar macrophage. (springer.com)
  • Peripolesis was also observed in lung alveoli, where the peripolesed macrophages were not injured, but the cell membrane did appear to be temporarily altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • To test the role of cellular metabolism in the CL of alveolar macrophages, 0.5 millimolar 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was added to the medium after maximal CL had been achieved. (cdc.gov)
  • mechanisms
  • 1-1 1-3 1-5 While the precise mechanisms employed by the macrophages to modulate T cells are incompletely understood, it is clear that their overall efficiency in this regard is a reflection of their maturation/activation status. (bmj.com)
  • immune
  • It was observed between lymphocytes and macrophages following skin grafts between subjects, and after immune challenge with antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface
  • The researchers then examined BAL cell populations after staining for various cell-surface markers by flow cytometry, and found that, in individuals without TB, very few alveolar macrophages (an average of 3%) expressed DC-SIGN. (rxpgnews.com)