• immunity
  • CXCL13 is Required for B1 Cell Homing, Natural Antibody Production, and Body Cavity Immunity Immunity. (jove.com)
  • These findings provide insight into the mechanism of B1 cell homing and establish a critical role for B1 cell compartmentalization in the production of natural antibodies and for body cavity immunity. (jove.com)
  • A sting in the tale of TH2 immunity. (nih.gov)
  • Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach and induces strong, specific local and systemic humoral and cell-mediated immunity, resulting in the development of chronic gastritis in humans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is unclear how Th2 immunity is induced in response to allergens like house dust mite (HDM). (rupress.org)
  • Depletion of basophils only partially reduced Th2 immunity, and depletion of eosinophils had no effect on the Th2 response. (rupress.org)
  • Inflammatory DCs were necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity and features of asthma, whereas basophils were not required. (rupress.org)
  • We favor a model whereby DCs initiate and basophils amplify Th2 immunity to HDM allergen. (rupress.org)
  • Different subsets of CD4 + T helper cells are then generated to control different types of protective immunity. (rupress.org)
  • Depletion of basophils using an antibody directed to the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) led to strongly reduced Th2 immunity in these models, whereas adoptive transfer of only basophils could induce Th2 polarization in naive antigen-specific T cells, without the necessity of DCs. (rupress.org)
  • The nuocyte was identified at the same time as several other immune cells that play similar roles in type 2 immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the innate system, the adaptive system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the gene rearrangement leads to an irreversible change in the DNA of each cell, all progeny (offspring) of that cell inherit genes that encode the same receptor specificity, including the memory B cells and memory T cells that are the keys to long-lived specific immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the proper activation and development of TFH cells is central to the efficacy of immunizations and vaccine design for the induction of long-term immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17
  • Transcriptional profiling of TFH cells has revealed a distinct repertoire of expressed genes that demarcates them from Th1, Th2, or Th17 cells ( 3 ), and TFH cells have been reported to differentiate normally in vivo where conditions for Th1, Th2, or Th17 cell development are impaired ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • They are the innate counterpart to Th17 cells, and share the common transcription factor of RORγt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th1 cells mediate protection to viruses and intracellular bacteria, whereas Th17 cells help protect against extracellular bacteria and fungi. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, although present in normal numbers, the ILC3 and Th17 cells from RORα deficient mice are defective for cytokine production. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR6 is also expressed on Th17 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ITK is functionally important for the development and effector function of Th2 and Th17 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-17A producing T helper cells (Th17 cells) are a distinct lineage from the Th1 and Th2 CD4+ lineages and the differentiation of Th17 cells requires STAT3 and RORC. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disease and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have historically been associated with the discovery of Th17 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, elevated expression of IL-17A in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions as well as peripheral blood has been documented before the identification of Th17 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human TH17 cells have been shown to efficiently transmigrate across the blood-brain barrier in multiple sclerosis lesions, promoting central nervous system inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the finding of IL-17-producing cells as well as IL17A transcripts in the lesions of psoriatic patients suggested that Th17 cells may synergize with Th1 cells in driving the pathology in psoriasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17 cells is also strongly associated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic disorder with symptoms include chronic joint inflammation, autoantibody production, which lead to the destruction of cartilage and bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17 cells and IL-17 have also been linked to Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in man. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the exact cause of lupus is not fully known, it has been reported that IL-17 and Th17 cells are involved in disease pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • Most proteins have a secretion signal that causes them to leave the cell," says Jonathan Kagan, PhD , an immunology researcher in Boston Children's Hospital's Division of Gastroenterology. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Interleukin 33 (IL-33) induces IL-9 expression and secretion in T cells, which was confirmed by the results obtained in mice by using Human in vitrosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon cellular interaction and cross-signaling with their cognate follicular (Fo B) B cells, TFH cells trigger the formation and maintenance of germinal centers through the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and the secretion of IL-21 and IL-4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it has been shown that ICOS induces the secretion of IL-21 cytokine by activated CD4+ T cells and that IL-21 plays a crucial role in the development of TFH cells and germinal centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secretion of various molecules into the lumen reinforces the barrier function on the extra-epithelial side, while a variety of immune cells provide additional protection below the epithelial layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microbiota can influence barrier function both directly, by stimulating epithelial cell proliferation and secretion of IL-8, and indirectly by producing short-chain fatty acids, which are an important energy source for colonic epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-17A receptor A (IL-17RA) was first isolated and cloned from mouse EL4 thymoma cells and the bioactivity of IL-17A was confirmed by stimulating the transcriptional factor NF-kappa B activity and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen
  • Activated T cells migrate to the B cell follicles and position themselves at the edge of the follicle, where they meet antigen-primed B cells that have also specifically migrated outwards. (rupress.org)
  • Thereafter, antigen-primed T cells become distributed throughout the entire follicle, presumably to egg on the germinal center reaction. (rupress.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 12830136 Antigen and cytokine receptor signals act in synergy to direct the differentiation of CD4+ T cells. (jove.com)
  • These cells are defined by absence of antigen specific B or T cell receptor because of the lack of recombination activating gene (RAG). (wikipedia.org)
  • Basophils did not take up inhaled antigen, present it to T cells, or express antigen presentation machinery, whereas a population of FceRI + DCs readily did. (rupress.org)
  • Within 12 h of secondary challenge, antigen-specific memory B cells migrate to the T zones, interact with memory T cells, and start to produce Cγ1 switch transcript. (rupress.org)
  • DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting against disease by injection with genetically engineered DNA so cells directly produce an antigen, producing a protective immunological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most critical step in vaccination is the effective presentation of cancer antigens to T cells and because of DCs are the most efficient antigen presenting cells, they are the promising option for improvement of therapeutic vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are incubated ex vivo in the presence of a recombinant fusion protein PA2024 containing a prostate antigen, prostate acid phosphatase and GM-CSF, an immune-cell activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a combination of cell to cell interactions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naïve T cells are those T cells that have never been exposed to the antigen that they are programmed to respond to). (wikipedia.org)
  • The variable region determines what antigen the T cell can respond to. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class II MHC proteins are generally only found on the surface of specialised antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose foreign material (typically bacteria or viruses), which undergoes processing, then travel from the infection site to the lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once at the lymph nodes, the APC begin to present antigen peptides that are bound to Class II MHC, allowing CD4+ T cells that express the specific TCRs against the peptide/MHC complex to activate. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a Th cell encounters and recognises the antigen on an APC, the TCR-CD3 complex binds strongly to the peptide-MHC complex present on the surface of professional APCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the assistance of a phosphatase present on the intracellular section of CD45 (common leukocyte antigen), these molecules activate major Th cell intracellular pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon subsequent encounters with a given antigen, memory T cells are re-activated using the same TCR pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • In germinal centers, antigen-experienced TFH cells rapidly upregulate the expression of CD40L, which binds and stimulates the B cell surface receptor CD40. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Invariant NKT cells (iNKT cells) are a subset of TCRαβ + T cells that recognize glycolipid antigens in the context of the unconventional major histocompatibility complex class I protein CD1D. (rupress.org)
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (rupress.org)
  • Pacholczyk R. Kern J. Singh N. Iwashima M. Kraj P. Ignatowicz L. Nonself-antigens are the cognate specificities of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. (springer.com)
  • Non-activated (immature) DCs are usually located in the peripheral non-lymphoid tissues and they can present self-antigens to T cells, that leads to immune tolerance either through T cell deletion or through the differentiation of regulatory T cells or suppressor T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature DCs have ability to present antigens in the lymphoid tissues and prime, activate and expand effector immune cells with unique functions and cytokine profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low affinity plasma cell production is formed but this does not lead to germinal center induction nor permit antibody affinity maturation or the differentiation of effective memory B cells which are essential in fortifying the body against subsequent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Selective depletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induces a scurfy-like disease. (springer.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection in the stomach induces chronic gastritis associated with the development of peptic ulcer diseases, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in humans ( 3 , 8 , 35 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The addition of killed Bordetella pertussis to the hapten-protein induces nonhapten-specific IgG2a and IgG1 plasma cells, whereas the anti-hapten response continues to be IgG1 dominated. (rupress.org)
  • Interleukin-13 induces goblet cell differentiation and allows for the production of MUC5AC in tracheal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002). "Sphingosine 1 phosphate induces the chemotaxis of human natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsets
  • Cell surface molecules that reliably mark Th1 or Th2 cells were also sought, and to date the chemokine receptors are probably the most convenient (although by no means ideal) markers of functional subsets. (rupress.org)
  • The relationship of T follicular helper (TFH) cells to other T helper (Th) subsets is controversial. (rupress.org)
  • Our studies in this area have, on the basis of surface marker expression, identified subsets of Th2 cells ( 15 ), one of which is notable for its expression of PD-1, a molecule that has been reported to be expressed by TFH cells ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • mice
  • The number of Th2-type effector iNKT cells is variable in different strains of mice, and their number impacts CD8 T, dendritic, and B cell function. (rupress.org)
  • SPDEF was required for goblet cell differentiation and pulmonary Th2 inflammation in response to house dust mite (HDM) extract, as both were decreased in neonatal and adult Spdef -/- mice compared with control animals. (jci.org)
  • Here we report that in mice lacking the chemokine, CXCL13, B1 cells are deficient in peritoneal and pleural cavities but not in spleen. (jove.com)
  • TFH cell development after immunization failed to occur in mice lacking B cells or CD154. (rupress.org)
  • We find that in mice infected with S. mansoni , or in mice immunized with an extract of schistosome eggs, TFH cells comprise a major component of the Th cell response and express genes that would normally be considered markers of Th2 cells. (rupress.org)
  • A) Percent IL-4eGFP+ T cells from popliteal LNs of 4get mice 5 days after subcutaneous immunization with PBS, bee venom, bvPLA2, or melittin. (nih.gov)
  • B) Cytokine production after in vitro restimulation of LN CD4+ T cells from BALB/c mice 5 days after subcutaneous immunization with OVA in the absence or presence of bvPLA2. (nih.gov)
  • A-E) CD4+ GFP+ T cells from popliteal LNs of 4get mice 5 days after subcutaneous immunization with (A) active bvPLA2 or heat-inactivated bvPLA2 (C) OVA in the presence of LPC or AA (D) OVA, Crotalus atrox venom or Agkistrodon contortrix venom (E) OVA, Crotalus adamanteus venom, or Crotalus adamanteus PLA2. (nih.gov)
  • Several endpoints of AGVHD and CGVHD should be evaluated in experimental mice, with comparisons made to the syngeneic transplant control or the T cell‐depleted allogeneic control. (currentprotocols.com)
  • This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • It was only natural to ask where these two great classes of cells arose, and after much work two cell types with some strong stem cell properties were isolated and defined - CMP, the common myeloid progenitor and CLP, the common lymphoid progenitor for mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice, RORα is essential for development of cerebellum through direct regulation of genes expressed in Purkinje cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR2 can interact with CCL2, CCL8 and CCL16 and has been identified on the surface of monocytes, activated memory T cells, B cells, and basophils in humans, and also in peritoneal macrophages in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-33 is constitutively located in the nucleus of structural cells of humans and mice and has a helix-turn-helix domain presumably allowing it to bind to DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inducible T-cell co-stimulator (CD278 or ICOS) is proven to provide a particularly critical signal for TFH cells since experimental mice deficient in ICOS are unable to develop any TFH. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • However, this neat scheme had one troubling aspect: where do helper cells for antibody production fit in? (rupress.org)
  • T cell help for antibody production has long been considered a Th2 property ( 2 )( 3 ), although certain Ig class switching relies on IFN-γ. (rupress.org)
  • In this issue, two groups have provided one of the best examples of this concept, by identifying CXCR5 as a chemokine receptor responsible for the follicular homing of a unique subset of T helper cells for antibody production ( 13 )( 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 11825566 B1 cells are a predominant cell type in body cavities and an important source of natural antibody. (jove.com)
  • The antibody-producing cells arise from cognate T cell B cell interaction, revealed by the respective induction of Cγ2a and Cγ1 switch transcript production, on the third day after immunization. (rupress.org)
  • They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • AID expression (encoded by the AICDA gene) causes B cell antibodies to class switch from IgM/IgD to other antibody isotypes and drives somatic hypermutation during clonal proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, germinal center-dependent memory B cells are the drivers of recall antibody production during a secondary immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • Following T cell development, matured, naïve T cells leave the thymus and begin to spread throughout the body, including the lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR9 was previously called orphan receptor GPR 9-6 and is very highly expressed in thymus (on both immature and mature T-cells) while low in lymph nodes and spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • These active pathways are known as Signal 1 of T cell activation, as it is the first and primary pro-activation signal in a Th cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the medulla of the bone (bone marrow) and have the unique ability to give rise to all of the different mature blood cell types and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e. (frontiersin.org)
  • While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e. (frontiersin.org)
  • T cell proliferation and upregulation of mRNA for interferon γ in response to MMTV(SW) and interleukin 4 in response to haptenated protein also starts during this day. (rupress.org)
  • This cytokine stimulates cell proliferation and prevents apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is thought to play a role in T-cell proliferation and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • airway
  • Interleukin-13 is a central regulator in IgE synthesis, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion, airway hyperresponsiveness, fibrosis and chitinase up-regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that cell-surface expression of IL-13Rα2 on human asthmatic airway fibroblasts was reduced compared with expression on normal control airway fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • helper type
  • These signals initiate reciprocal activation and silencing of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) cytokine gene loci, changes that are heritably maintained in the resulting T helper type 1 (T(H)1) or T(H)2 cells and their progeny. (jove.com)
  • Although H. pylori -induced chronic atrophic gastritis is characterized by marked infiltration of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine-producing CD4 + T cells, almost all of the inflamed gastric mucosae also contain focal lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • IL-13 is a cytokine secreted by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, CD4 cells, Natural killer T cell, Mast cell, Basophil cells, Eosinophil cells and Nuocyte cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • this is illustrated by the reciprocal effects of KLF2 and KLF13 deficiency in NKT cell differentiation, and by examples of both cooperation and antagonism in the control of B cell subset differentiation by KLF2 and KLF3. (jimmunol.org)
  • This subset of T cells could be distinguished from Th1 or Th2 cells, and would thus represent a third class of effector-type T cell. (rupress.org)
  • Recently, it has become clear that a subset of CD4 + cells, termed T follicular helper (TFH) cells largely on the basis of their localization in B cell follicles, plays a crucial role in B cell response induction. (rupress.org)
  • CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells (TFH cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have however shown that TFH have distinct gene expression profiles, supporting the theory that TFH are a subset of CD4+ T cells distinct from Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 or Tregs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also Bcl-6 is a transcription factor identified in TFH cells, but it may have roles that extend beyond this subset, because it has also been implicated in memory CD8+ T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Interest in the KLF family among immunologists was sparked by a report from Leiden's group ( 5 ), which showed that deficiency for KLF2 (LKLF) caused upregulation of T cell activation markers and a dramatic loss of peripheral T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • KLF2 is induced late during maturation of thymocytes and is maintained in peripheral naive T cells ( 5 , 8 - 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Peripheral tolerance mechanisms include deletion by activation induced cell death, anergy and dominant suppression. (springer.com)
  • Although the important contribution of suppression for the maintenance of peripheral T-cell tolerance was repeatedly proven in experimental systems, it was discredited for many years as no defined suppressor cell population could be identified. (springer.com)
  • Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-beta induction of transcription factor Foxp3. (springer.com)
  • CD4+CD25 high regulatory cells in human peripheral blood. (springer.com)
  • In a healthy adult person, approximately 1011-1012 new blood cells are produced daily in order to maintain steady state levels in the peripheral circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Here we demonstrate a unique function for the transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) in the postselection expansion of iNKT cells through a direct induction of the CD127 component of the receptor for interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the transcription factor c- myc . (rupress.org)
  • T and B cells continuously recirculate from blood to lymphoid tissue, gaining entry through their expression of L-selectin and the chemokine receptor CCR7. (rupress.org)
  • Sakaguchi S. Sakaguchi N. Asano M. Itoh M. Toda M. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). (springer.com)
  • They comprise ILC3s and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells: ILC3s are a lymphoid cell population that can produce IL-22 and expresses NKp46 (an NK cell activating receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-13Rα2 (which is labelled as a decoy receptor) is derived from Th2 cells and is a pleotropic immune regulatory cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all T cells, they express the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T cell receptor (TCR) consists of both constant and variable regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some suggestion that this chemokine receptor is restricted to memory T-cells within the lymphocyte pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • This EDG receptor gene is intronless and is specifically expressed in the lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitors
  • The set comprising CLP cells and similar progenitors are themselves descendants of the pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell (pHSC) which is capable of generating all of the cell types of the complete blood cell system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pro-T cell progenitors retain nuocyte developmental potential but, unlike T cells, the thymus is dispensable for their development. (wikipedia.org)
  • T progenitors migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus where they are called thymocytes and where they develop into T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • TSLP
  • Study provides evidence for the hypothesis that TSLP could reflect the histological severity of lumbar disc degeneration (LDD), and TSLP -siRNA and TSLPR (show CRLF2 Proteins )-siRNA could inhibit apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • periostin (show POSTN Proteins )-mediated TSLP production by keratinocytes directly stimulates cutaneous T-cell lymphoma ( CTCL) tumor (show EEF1A1 Proteins ) cell growth in addition to inducing a Th2-dominant tumor environment in CTCL (show TSPYL2 Proteins ). (antibodies-online.com)
  • The proportion of TSLP -positive dermal cells was increased in the skin of SSc (show CYP11A1 Proteins ) patients compared with healthy donors, and was correlated with fibrosis. (antibodies-online.com)
  • molecules
  • As acceptance of the Th1/Th2 paradigm increased among immunologists, so too has the effort to identify Th1- or Th2-associated genes or molecules. (rupress.org)
  • CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a cell surface protein that mediates T cell helper function in a contact-dependent process and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus consists of a highly glycosylated hydrated gel formed by mucin molecules that are secreted by goblet cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crucial for forming an effective barrier is the precise control of the paracellular pathway (a route for translocation of molecules between cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are a diverse array of molecules that kill bacteria and fungi, are secreted by Paneth cells into the lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • They do not require the missing "self" signal of MHC Class I and can recognize stressed cells in the absence of antibodies, allowing them to react much more quickly than the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • they are also the predominant cell type responsible for controlling eosinophil-rich inflammation typical of allergic diseases like asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. (rupress.org)
  • CCR10 has been implicated in inflammation of the skin, and has been shown to recruit regulatory T cells (Tregs) to mucosal layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • CXCL13 is produced by cells in the omentum and by peritoneal macrophages, and in adoptive transfers, B1 cells home to the omentum and the peritoneal cavity in a CXCL13-dependent manner. (jove.com)
  • GATA3
  • LEF1 also directly augments expression of the effector fate-specifying transcription factor GATA3, thus promoting the development of Th2-like effector iNKT cells that produce IL-4, including those that also produce interferon-γ. (rupress.org)
  • These TFH cells express the canonical TFH markers BCL6 and IL-21, but also GATA3, the master regulator of Th2 cell differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • They require IL-7 for their development, which activates two transcription factors (both required by these cells)-RORα and GATA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription factor
  • ILC1s are analogous to Th1 cells, and share the common transcription factor of T-bet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, ILC3s differ from NK cells, as they are dependent on transcription factor RORγt, they lack cytotoxic effectors (perforin, granzymes and death receptors) and they do not produce IFNγ or TNF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuocytes have been shown to have a lymphoid origin and a developmental pathway that is dependent upon the transcription factor RORα and Notch signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also a minor sub-class within this population of GC Tfh cells that express the gene Foxp3, encoding for a transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • follicular
  • In addition, typical H. pylori -induced chronic gastritis in children, called follicular gastritis, is characterized by B-cell follicle formation in the gastric mucosa. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Immunology
  • Graft‐versus‐host disease (GVHD) represents a special situation in transplantation immunology in which immunocompetent donor cells are engrafted into recipients that are incapable of rejecting them due to tolerance, immaturity, or radiation‐ or chemotherapy‐induced immune deficiency. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Here are their predictions for what to expect in genetics, stem cell research, immunology and more. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Immunology and Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Murine GVHD experiments have been utilized to model the clinical disorders of acute and chronic GVHD (AGVHD and CGVHD) that occur after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, and also to study T cell regulation, induction of tolerance, and autoimmune diseases. (currentprotocols.com)
  • TFH cell-dependent paracrine activation of B cell CD40 results in B cell survival and differentiation, including the induction of AID (activation-induced (cytidine) deaminase). (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • Chronic lichenified lesions show acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, dense dermal mononuclear infiltrate, increase in mast cell and capillary numbers, enlargement of capillary walls with endothelial hyperplasia, and fibrosis. (worldallergy.org)
  • This cytokine was previously named NF-HEV 'nuclear factor (NF) in high endothelial venules' (HEVs) since it was originally identified in these specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast
  • IL-9 was found to be the first physiological stimulus triggering BCL3 expression in T cells and mast cells by the analysis done in mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • NK cells play a role in tumor surveillance and the rapid elimination of virus-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We can used specific TAAs, tumor lysates,created DC-cancer cell fusions, electroporation/transfection of DCs with total cancer cell-mRNA or tumor derived exosomes (TDEs) by the stimulation.There is also possibility of aditonal co-stimulating with cytokine "cocktails" to assure strong maturation. (wikipedia.org)