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  • antigen
  • However, in the context of cancer therapy, blocking the immune-checkpoints CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4) and/or PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed death 1 receptor and PD-1 receptor ligand 1) significantly facilitates immune cell activation, thereby generating durable clinical responses in cancer patients [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the ligation of B7-1 and B7-2, which are specifically expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), to their receptor CTLA-4 prevents T cell activation. (hindawi.com)
  • CD226 (Cluster of Differentiation 226), PTA1 (outdated term, 'platelet and T cell activation antigen 1') or DNAM-1 (DNAX Accessory Molecule-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD226 gene which is located on chromosome 18q22.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further work revealed that caspase-8 was essential for the induction of the transcription factor "nuclear factor κB" (NF-κB) after stimulation through antigen receptors, Fc receptors, or Toll-like receptor 4 in T, B, and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • spleen
  • This opsonization enhances the clearance of red blood cell by phagocytes in the liver, spleen, and lungs, a process termed extravascular hemolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • This should be taken into account when planning cellular therapy for autoimmune disease (AD) using stromal derived cells such as MSCs. (bmj.com)
  • Cold agglutinin disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of high concentrations of circulating antibodies, usually IgM, directed against red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, specifically one in which antibodies only bind red blood cells at low body temperatures, typically 28-31 °C. Cold agglutinin disease was first described in 1957. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) involves "Castleman-like" lymph node changes at multiple sites and patients often demonstrate intense episodes of systemic inflammatory symptoms, polyclonal/reactive lymphocyte and plasma cell proliferation, autoimmune manifestations, and multiple organ system impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • House, Douglas W., (1 April 2016) European Ad Comm backs Glaxo's stem cell therapy Strimvelis for rare autoimmune disorder, Seeking Alpha, Retrieved 13 April 2016 "Summary of opinion1 (initial authorisation) Strimvelis" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • We diagnosed a new case of a clonal T-LGL proliferation in a 6-year-old girl presenting with severe neutropenia and pure red blood cell aplasia (PRCA). (kuleuven.be)
  • BACKGROUND Clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements and loss of T cell antigens such as CD8 and TCR-β in intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) may indicate the development of an enteropathy-type intestinal T cell lymphoma (EITCL) in patients with refractory sprue. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS Clonal proliferations of phenotypically abnormal IELs in refractory sprue represent an early manifestation of EITCL, for which the term "sprue-like intestinal T cell lymphoma" is proposed. (bmj.com)
  • Signaling
  • In this study, we demonstrate that Bach2 is required to sustain high levels of B cell proliferation in response to BCR signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • BTB and CNC homology 2 (Bach2) is a transcriptional repressor that is required for the formation of the germinal center (GC) and reactions, including class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of Ig genes in B cells, within the GC. (jimmunol.org)
  • Transcriptome analysis of BCR-engaged B cells from Bach2 −/− mice revealed reduced expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2l1 encoding Bcl-x L and elevated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) family genes, including Cdkn1a , Cdkn2a , and Cdkn2b . (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings identify Bach2 as a requisite factor for sustaining high levels of BCR-induced proliferation, survival, and cell cycle progression, and it promotes expression of Bcl-x L and repression of CKI genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Latest discoveries from genes determined the YAP/TAZ family members of transcriptional company\activators (the exclusive homologue is certainly known as Yorkie) as getting important government bodies of cell growth during advancement and in adult control cells of the gut 6, 7, 8, 9. (health-e-nc.org)
  • This study had systematically identified the global genes and pathways by RNA sequencing in chicken lymphocytes after REV infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Georg F. Weber has defined the genetic basis of metastasis formation as aberrant expression or splicing of a unique set of developmentally non-essential genes (stress response genes) that physiologically mediate the homing of immune system cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin and negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, a large body of evidence has established that tumor cells, particularly malignant melanoma, elevate their PD-L1 expression in order to transmit inhibitory signals in several immune effector cells via binding to their PD-1 receptor. (hindawi.com)
  • However, despite this unexampled success, either many patients completely fail to respond, or even more concerning, among the initial responding patients, tumor regression often occurs, suggesting that tumor cells acquire therapy-induced resistance. (hindawi.com)
  • Unfortunately, drug resistance has turned out to be a multifactorial phenomenon, which is especially based on the property of tumor cells to present high phenotypic cell plasticity and heterogeneity [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. Multiple osteopontin splice variants are present in malignant, but not in benign human breast tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Clinical trials using antibodies that block the ligation of PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) or CTLA-4 (ipilimumab), with their ligands, revealed them to be efficient in more than 15 cancer types, including metastatic melanoma, bladder carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and breast and renal cell carcinoma [ 9 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Binding of antibodies to red blood cells activates the classical pathway of the complement system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depletion of T cells by use of anti-T cell antibodies in the prevention or treatment of transplant rejection further increases the risk of developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD226 mediates cellular adhesion to other cells bearing its ligands, CD112 and CD155, and cross-linking CD226 with antibodies causes cellular activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • This study was designed to isolate the compounds responsible for the cytotoxic properties of South Indian Elephantopus scaber L. and further investigate their effects on quiescent and proliferating cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Inspired by the antitumour properties exhibited by E. scaber , the chloroform extract was chosen to isolate the compounds responsible for the cytotoxic properties and further investigate their effects on quiescent and proliferating cells. (hindawi.com)
  • A common feature uniting all tumor entities is the ability of these cells to escape cytotoxic destruction by the immune system. (hindawi.com)
  • responses
  • Patients with CEDS have hypogammaglobulinemia, make poor antibody responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens, and their B cells, T cells, and NK cells do not activate well to stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • These patients may develop infectious mononucleosis-like lesions or polyclonal polymorphic B-cell hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In some patients, the malignant cell clone can become the dominant proliferating cell type, leading to frank lymphoma, a group of B cell lymphomas occurring in immunosuppressed patients following organ transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in immunosuppressed transplant patients, the lack of T-cell immunosurveillance can lead to the proliferation of these EBV-infected of B-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of wild-type FLT3 have been reported for blast cells of some AML patients without FLT3 mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • for refractory AML - particularly in patients who went on to have a stem cell transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Some of these B-cells may undergo mutations which will render them malignant, giving rise to a lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Finally, we are important of outcomes in cell lifestyle that are unsupported by related results in vivo. (health-e-nc.org)
  • It also exhibited significant in vivo antitumour efficacy against DLA tumour cells. (hindawi.com)
  • A. W. Kusnecov, A. J. Husband, M. G. King, and R. Smith, In vivo effects of ß -endorphin on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 production, Brain. (springer.com)
  • growth
  • to human beings, are likely to harbour a inhabitants of control cells that is certainly accountable for preserving the tissues through cell growth and difference of girl cells 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. (health-e-nc.org)
  • Control cells can expand to maintain regular tissues homeostasis, but also boost their growth in response to mechanised stretching out of the tissues or to tissues harm and major irritation. (health-e-nc.org)
  • There is certainly also proof for Yorkie performing as a sensor of mechanised factors during advancement, where it promotes cell growth in response to epithelial stretch out factors performing on the cytoskeleton 23, 24. (health-e-nc.org)
  • synthesis
  • This deficiency results in an accumulation of deoxyadenosine, which, in turn, leads to: a buildup of dATP in all cells, which inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and prevents DNA synthesis, so cells are unable to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The YAP/TAZ family of transcriptional co\activators memory sticks cell proliferation in epithelial cancers and tissues. (health-e-nc.org)
  • Molecular and functional characterization of galectin 9 mrna isoforms in porcine and human cells and tissues. (springer.com)
  • The functional role of the low pH sensitivity of the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors is being studied in several tissues where cells respond to conditions of low pH including bone and inflamed tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • Significantly, Yorkie is certainly governed by the cell polarity equipment in epithelial 37988-18-4 cells, getting turned on upon reduction of the apical polarity determinant Breadcrumbs, or reduction of the planar 37988-18-4 polarity determinant Fats 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. (health-e-nc.org)
  • These compounds caused a dose dependent reduction in the viability of L-929 tumour cells in 72 h culture (IC 50 value of 2.7 μ g/mL and 3.3 μ g/mL) by the cell viability assay. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the reduction of lymphocytes also might be responsible for the lower levels of IL8 and IL18, and the rescue of lymphocytes would been activated still through FOXO and p53 pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • indicate
  • 4 The epitheliotropism and immunophenotypic properties-for example, expression of CD103-of EITCL indicate a derivation from intraepithelial T lymphocytes (IELs). (bmj.com)
  • high
  • A: Columnar epithelial cells display cytoplasmic at high thickness YAP, but nuclear YAP at low thickness (which induce growing out of cells). (health-e-nc.org)
  • A phase 2 study of adoptively transferred EBV-specific T cells demonstrated high efficacy with minimal toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • lysis
  • If the complement response is insufficient to form membrane attack complexes, then extravascular lysis will be favored over intravascular red blood cell lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • CD135 is an important cell surface marker used to identify certain types of hematopoietic (blood) progenitors in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA (D.T.B. (ahajournals.org)
  • This marker is therefore used to differentiate hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are CD135 negative, from MPPs, which are CD135 positive. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • P. Y. Law, D. S. Hom, H. H. Loh, Opiate regulation of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate level in neuroblastoma x glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells. (springer.com)
  • protein
  • Galectin-9 binding to cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates the redox environment to enhance t-cell migration and HIV entry. (springer.com)
  • This complex remains in the cell until it is bound by another protein called Latent TGF-β-Binding Protein (LTBP), forming a larger complex called Large Latent Complex (LLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • However, β-endorphin has been shown to decrease antibody production as measured by the plaque-forming cell response (5,9). (springer.com)
  • response
  • In addition, wounding or infections of the epidermis also sparks a proliferative response of basal level cells to replace the broken epidermis with brand-new cells. (health-e-nc.org)
  • If the complement response is sufficient, red blood cells are damaged by the membrane attack complex, an effector of the complement cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kv1.2 channel regulates neurotransmitter release associated with heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, immunological response and cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • It increases the time necessary to conduct action potentials in the cell in response to a stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • entity
  • Several synonymous terms have been done for this entity: adenomatoid proliferation of alveolar epithelium, papillary alveolar hamartoma, multifocal alveolar hyperplasia, multinodular pneumocyte hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Castleman disease is diagnosed when a lymph node biopsy reveals regression of germinal centers, abnormal vascularity, and a range of hyaline vascular changes and/or polytypic plasma cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Squamous Cell Carc
  • Aldolase A (ALDOA) is a highly expressed in multiple cancers, including lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), renal cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • To determine whether an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine could induce antitumor immune responses in patients after resection of colorectal cancer metastases and whether these responses could be enhanced by activating DCs with CD40L. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A clinical study subsequently confirmed that an intranodal DC injection was more likely to induce peptide-specific T-cell responses than intradermal or intravenous injections ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • APCs
  • Dendritic cells (DC) 3 are a heterogenous population of APCs that contribute to innate immunity and initiate adaptive immune responses to Ags associated with infection and inflammation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Bone
  • Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. (jove.com)
  • There are millions of B and T cells created in the bone marrow and thymus, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • If autoreactive cells escape clonal deletion in either the thymus or the bone marrow, there are mechanisms in the periphery involving T regulatory cells to prevent the host from obtaining an autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transplantation of stem cells are taken from the bone marrow, peripheral blood or umbilical cord of healthy, matched donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells are taken from an affected child's blood or bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, in bone transplant, stem cells are able to find their way back through tracking mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) after a long latent period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL) was discovered in 1977 in Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adults, telomerase is highly expressed only in cells that need to divide regularly especially in male sperm cells[citation needed] but also in epidermal cells, in activated T cell and B cell lymphocytes, as well as in certain adult stem cells, but in the great majority of cases somatic cells do not express telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune cells
  • It is generally released from damaged immune cells and signals through its receptor ST2 in an autocrine and paracrine fashion, plays important roles in type-2 innate immunity,and functions as an "alarmin" or a danger signal for cellular damage or cellular stress. (transpopmed.org)
  • Patients who suffer from RD will now have more stem cells that can differentiate into immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • Rho proteins regulate the dynamic assembly of cytoskeletal components for several physiologic processes, such as cell proliferation and motility and the establishment of cell polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In LSCC, its upregulation correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis, while its downregulation reduces tumor cell motility and tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • predominantly
  • indicated that the exposure of retinal neurosensory and glial cells to HIV Tat resulted in increased activation and release of proinflammatory mediators, predominantly the chemokine and neurotoxic factor CXCL10 and the cytokine TNF- α [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • fluorescent
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • inflammatory
  • The initial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by polyclonal activation of both T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes with the release of inflammatory cytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to pro-inflammatory mediators, they observed that retinal cells also demonstrated increased cell activation as evidenced by augmented expression of GFAP, which is due to the activation of Muller glial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Consistently, we observed in inflammatory bowel disease specimens that TNFR1 was constitutively phosphorylated on S381 in those inflammatory T cells, which had accumulated in high numbers in the inflamed mucosa. (jimmunol.org)
  • lymphoid
  • B and T lymphocytes are tested for their affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes before leaving the primary lymphoid organs and entering into the periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for both B and T cells in the primary lymphoid organs, clonal deletion is the most common form of negative selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a mode of cell death defined by characteristic morphological, biochemical and molecular changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • In a murine model, we found that a tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine generated an order of magnitude greater antitumor immunity than immunization with irradiated tumor cells plus the classic adjuvant, Corynebacterium parvum ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Regulator
  • These medullary epithelial cells express an autoimmune regulator (AIRE) which allows these cells to present proteins specific to other parts of the body to T lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • INPP5D also called SHIP1 was also shown to be a negative regulator of BCR signalling in B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hsc70 additionally serves as a positive regulator of cell cycle transition and carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • i.e., they are multipotential hemopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then in laboratory conditions the stem cells are manipulated and corrected with gene technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond unicellular organisms) Telomerase is active in normal stem cells and most cancer cells, but is normally absent from, or at very low levels in, most somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells express telomerase, which allows them to divide repeatedly and form the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • osteosarcoma cells
  • UMR-106, rat osteosarcoma cells and HTR8/SVneo, human trophoblast cells, were grown in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% FBS, 2 mM glutamine, 100 Units/ml penicillin and 100 [micro]g/ml streptomycin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cellular
  • IL-33 is also considered an "alarmin" which is promptly discharging from its producing cells upon cellular damage or cellular stress [ 11 ]. (transpopmed.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, because of their CD34+ expression, such undifferentiated cells can be sorted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • This age-associated decrease of thymic epithelial volume results in a reduction/exhaustion on the number of thymocytes (i.e. pre-mature T-cells), thus reducing output of peripheral naïve T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. (jove.com)
  • During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation of the DNA and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • T-lymphocyte turnover is promoted by the production of interleukin-6, interleukin-1, interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α , all of which promote HIV replication [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function. (jci.org)
  • inability
  • As the HIV infection progresses, a loss of CD4+ memory cells accompanied by an inability to activate and afterwards replicate new CD4+ cells is observed. (hindawi.com)
  • infection
  • Based on our flow cytometric in situ hybridization analysis that revealed EBV infection of only B lymphocytes, we decided to administer rituximab to control the abnormal EBV infection. (paperity.org)
  • proteins
  • The lipid outer envelope is of host cell origin but contains viral transmembrane and surface proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)