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  • node
  • 7 ] showed that lymphovascular invasion, but not lymphangiogenesis, was correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in young breast cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A lymph node located in front of the shoulder. (cancerterms.net)
  • In a retrospective analysis, paradoxical deterioration of lymph node tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected patients was common, occurring in 25 (23%) of 109 patients after treatment had been given for a median of 46 days (interquartile range, 21-139 days) and persisting for a median of 67.5 days (interquartile range, 34-111 days). (oup.com)
  • Lymph node biopsy is a test in which a lymph node or a piece of a lymph node is removed for examination under a microscope (see: biopsy). (wikipedia.org)
  • The test is used to help determine the cause of lymph node enlargement (swollen glands or lymphadenitis). (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also determine whether tumors in the lymph node are cancerous or noncancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathologist may also perform additional tests on the lymph node tissue to assist in making a diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the conditions where abnormal values are obtained are: Hodgkin's lymphoma Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Sarcoidosis tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis (scrofula) Lymph node biopsies may be performed to evaluate the spread of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Sentinel lymph node biopsy for evaluating early, thin melanoma has not been shown to improve survival, and for this reason, should not be performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A small incision is made, and the lymph node or part of the node is removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, there is a moderate risk of nerve injury, localized paralysis, or numbness when the biopsy is performed on a lymph node close to nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymph node stromal cells are essential to the structure and function of the lymph node. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interior of the lymph node has two regions: the cortex and the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Near the medulla is the hilum of lymph node. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary role of lymph node stromal cells is structural. (wikipedia.org)
  • An adaptive immune response takes place in response to the presence of the antigen in the lymph node. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of S1P in the lymph node is maintained at a level lower than that of the blood or the lymph under the influence of S1P lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means immune cells may leave the lymph node along a chemokine gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymph node stromal cells express peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (PTAs) on their surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drains
  • They receive lymphatic afferents from the following: integument of the penis scrotum perineum buttock abdominal wall below the level of the umbilicus back below the level of the iliac crest vulva anus (below the pectinate line) the thigh and the medial side of the leg (the lateral leg drains to the popliteal lymph nodes first). (wikipedia.org)
  • The right lymphatic duct drains lymph from the right upper limb, right side of thorax and right halves of head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral aortic group drains the iliac lymph nodes, the ovaries, and other pelvic organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • afferent lymph
  • A lymph sinus which includes the subcapsular sinus, is a channel within the node, lined by endothelial cells along with fibroblastic reticular cells and this allows for the smooth flow of lymph through them.The endothelium of the subcapsular sinus is continuous with that of the afferent lymph vessel and is also with that of the similar sinuses flanking the trabeculae and within the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • venous
  • Lymph is ultimately returned to the venous circulation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, it was debated whether the lymph sacs developed from the venous system, or if they came from spaces in the mesenchyme, which come together in a centripetal direction and secondarily opened into the veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because lymph sacs form from the venous system, they typically contain red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that the lymph sacs are directly connected to the venous system and that the venous components and lymphatic components communicate through a small hole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the ballooning, there is the process of pinching, which separates the lymph sacs from the venous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • biopsy
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer: a suitable alternative to routine axillary dissection in multi-institutional practice when optimal technique is used. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive axillary evaluation in neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients with ltrasonography and sentinel lymph node biopsy. (springer.com)
  • Accuracy of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy following neoadjuvant (induction) chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast. (springer.com)
  • If the test comes back malignant they will take some of your lymph nodes to do a biopsy to see how far the cancer has spread so that they can diagnose the stage of the disease. (medhelp.org)
  • My cyst came back as borderline so they took my appendix but no lymph node biopsy. (medhelp.org)
  • The lateral aortic lymph nodes, typically 15 to 20 on each side, are the ones usually chosen for dissection or biopsy in the treatment or diagnosis of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • sentinel lymp
  • Can axillary dissection be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis? (springer.com)
  • Characteristics of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer predict further involvement of higher-echelon nodes in the axilla: a study to evaluate the need for complete axillary lymph node dissection. (springer.com)
  • One such node is the Delphian node situated above the isthmus of the thyroid gland, which may be removed at the time of a thyoidectomy as a sentinel lymph node in order to identify risks of cancer spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • Lymph Nodes of the Upper Limb and Breast Trochlea of humerus This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) clinicalconsiderations at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) Image at umich.edu Image at ucsd.edu Patel D (2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • drain
  • Lymph capillaries or lymphatic capillaries are tiny, thin-walled microvessels located in the spaces between cells (except in the central nervous system and non-vascular tissues ) which serve to drain and process extracellular fluid . (wikipedia.org)
  • The parasternal lymph nodes drain into the bronchomediastinal trunks, in a similar fashion to the upper intercostal lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillaries
  • Lymph capillaries have a greater internal oncotic pressure than blood capillaries, due to the greater concentration of plasma proteins in the lymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of a basal lamina allows lymph capillaries to be more permeable than blood capillaries and, as a consequence, more effective in removing protein-rich fluid from the intercellular spaces. (daviddarling.info)
  • The lymph is formed when the interstitial fluid (the fluid which lies in the interstices of all body tissues) is collected through lymph capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • A lymph vessel is a vessel that, unlike a blood vessel , carries fluid only away from tissues . (daviddarling.info)
  • This fluid is a pale, watery substance known as lymph . (daviddarling.info)
  • Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the lymph is derived from the interstitial fluid, its composition continually changes as the blood and the surrounding cells continually exchange substances with the interstitial fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, lymph when formed is a watery clear liquid with the same composition as the interstitial fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nodules
  • The lymph node is divided into compartments called lymph nodules (or lobules) each consisting of a cortical region of combined follicle B cells, a paracortical region of T cells, and a basal part of the nodule in the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • Cervical lymph node metastasis is a common feature of papillary thyroid carcinoma Henri Rouvière produced an influential classification in 1938. (wikipedia.org)
  • sacs
  • Lymph sacs are a part of the development of the human lymphatic system, known as lymphangiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that the development of lymph sacs occurs through swelling and outgrowth of pre-lymphatic clusters from the cardinal vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • These processes begin forming the lymph sacs during the 5th week of fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • One week later, during the 6th week of fetal development, four more lymph sacs form. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many transcription factors that regulate the development of the lymphatic system, particularly the lymph sacs, but in all of the migrating lymphatic endothelial cell precursors, there is one specific factor present, Prospero-related homeobox-1 (PROX1). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, regardless of the presence of these markers, it appears that only the subset of endothelial cells that begin to express Prox1 form the undeveloped lymph sacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many experiments involving mice have proven the importance of the Prox1 transcription factor in the development of primitive lymph sacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • Despite low pressure, lymph movement occurs due to peristalsis (propulsion of the lymph due to alternate contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue), valves, and compression during contraction of adjacent skeletal muscle and arterial pulsation. (wikipedia.org)
  • chyle
  • Likewise, the lymph formed in the human digestive system called chyle is rich in triglycerides (fat), and looks milky white because of its lipid content. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancerous
  • The characterization of cancerous lymph nodes on CT scan, MRI or ultrasound is difficult, and usually requires confirmation by other nuclear imaging techniques such as PET scans. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Gross enlargement of the lymph nodes through malignant proliferation of lymph cells characterizes Hodgkin's disease and other forms of lymphoma. (britannica.com)
  • as my mass will most likely be malignant, as they believe this is recurrant GCT, and the Doc did say that she would do staging during the surgery (it wasn't done during my first surgery) does this mean that they will definatly remove some lymph nodes? (medhelp.org)
  • immune
  • The lymph system is also an important part of the immune system, the body's defense system against disease. (webmd.com)
  • Although the primary function of the lymphatic system is to return proteins and fluids to the blood, this immune function accounts for the tendency of many infections and other disease processes to cause swelling of the lymph nodes. (britannica.com)
  • Before lymph is returned to the blood, it passes through lymph nodes where it is exposed to the cells of the immune system . (daviddarling.info)
  • Lymph nodes are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, acting as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • Cancer can spread through the lymph system. (webmd.com)
  • Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has been a cornerstone of the management of breast cancer since the Halstedian era of radical mastectomy. (springer.com)
  • The removal of ipsilateral axillary nodes was employed to obtain maximum cure, regional control of lymph node metastases, and the most accurate breast cancer staging. (springer.com)
  • Axillary lymph nodes and breast cancer: a review. (springer.com)
  • Many women with early breast cancer do not appear to need removal of their lymph nodes, as is often recommended, according to a federally funded study released Tuesday. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Breast cancer is diagnosed in about 200,000 women each year in the United States, with the cancer reaching the lymph nodes in about one-third of the cases. (washingtonpost.com)
  • When the cancer has spread to any lymph nodes, doctors usually recommend that nodes in the armpit be removed surgically, along with the tumor in the breast, to reduce the risk of a recurrence. (washingtonpost.com)
  • About 60 to 70 percent of women with cancer diagnosed in lymph nodes may now opt not to have more nodes removed based on this study, meaning thousands of women would avoid the additional surgery, he said. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Metastatic cancer cells can also be transported via lymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • The condition of the lymph nodes is very important in cancer staging, which decides the treatment to be used, and determines the prognosis. (wikipedia.org)