Loading...



  • Genes
  • By combinatorially pairing genes with a compact set of ribosome-binding sites, we modulate protein abundance by several orders of magnitude. (nih.gov)
  • Reporter genes can also be used to assay for the expression of the gene of interest, which may produce a protein that has little obvious or immediate effect on the cell culture or organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more complex use of reporter genes on a large scale is in two-hybrid screening, which aims to identify proteins that natively interact with one another in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aequorea
  • In the 1960s and 1970s, GFP, along with the separate luminescent protein aequorin (an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of luciferin, releasing light), was first purified from Aequorea victoria and its properties studied by Osamu Shimomura. (wikipedia.org)
  • Residues
  • This has also explained the need for a thiol reagent like beta mercaptoethanol in the regeneration of the protein since such reagents weaken the sulfhydryl bonds between cysteine residues, expediting the regeneration of the aequorin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction is important for chemical sequencing of proteins, as the Edman degradation process is unable to sequence more than 70 consecutive residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after or even during synthesis, the residues in a protein are often chemically modified by post-translational modification, which alters the physical and chemical properties, folding, stability, activity, and ultimately, the function of the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • It is applicable to all kinds of kinase substrates regardless of their nature with no prior modification (peptides, protein, polymer, lipids, and sugars). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The assay is robust as indicated by the high Z' values (over 0.8), homogenous, can be completed in one step after completion of kinase reaction, does not require antibodies or custom synthesized substrates, and is ideal to search for optimal substrates in a collection of peptides, proteins, lipids in one assay format and to screen for ATP and Non-ATP competitive inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pathways
  • Reporter gene assay have been increasingly used in high throughput screening (HTS) to identify small molecule inhibitors and activators of protein targets and pathways for drug discovery and chemical biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luminescence
  • 0.8) , and rapid performance (10 minutes), and its ease of use, the luminescence based Kinase Glo TM, Kinase Glo Plus TM , and now Kinase Glo Max assay platform have gained wide acceptance in many drug screening programs for protein kinase inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transcription of the LuxCDABEG operon results in luminescence due to the expression of LuxA and LuxB, which form a protein known as a luciferase and the expression of LuxC, D, E, and G, which are involved in the synthesis of the luciferase's substrate, tetradecanal. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • However, in the presence of calcium ions, the protein undergoes a conformational change and through oxidation converts its prosthetic group, coelenterazine, into excited coelenteramide and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra (previously called Gonyaulax polyedra) also contains a second protein called luciferin binding protein (LBP) that has been proposed to protect luciferin from non-luminescent oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • luciferase
  • Voltage gated proton channels were subsequently identified in a dinoflagellate confirming their predicted existence Scintillons have been extensively purified from L. polyedra by centrifugation, and these purified scintillon preparations contain luciferase and luciferin binding protein as the only detectable protein components. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was meant to distinguish them from other light-producing proteins because these do not exhibit the usual luciferin-luciferase reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecule
  • They documented the molecular weight, isoelectric point, optical absorption spectra and presence of two iron atoms per protein molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarity in the size of exons and their distribution in the domains of the protein molecule indicates that the evolutionary development of lactoferrin gene occurred by duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • aequorin
  • Chemical characterization of aequorin indicates the protein is somewhat resilient to harsh treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early successful purification of aequorin led to the first experiments involving the injection of the protein into the tissues of living animals to visualize the physiological release of calcium in the muscle fibers of a barnacle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • it is the combined effect of all of the amino acid side chains in a protein that ultimately determines its three-dimensional structure and its chemical reactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • When synthesized, these two proteins aggregate together and migrate to the vacuole membrane where LBP binds luciferin and the scintillons acquires an ability to produce light upon stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • luciferin
  • Unlike photoproteins which stably bind coelenterazine and emit light upon addition of calcium, coelenterazine is normally bound by RrLBP, the luciferin-binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1970s
  • Attention to lanthanide probes increased greatly in the mid-1970s when Finnish researchers proposed Eu(III), Sm(III), Tb(III), and Dy(III) polyaminocarboxylates as luminescent sensors in time-resolved luminescent (TRL) immunoassays. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • These synthetic DNA sequences are composed of three distinct functional parts: (i) a spacer sequence (5′-UTR), (ii) RBS core, which can also be referred to as a modified Shine-Dalgarno sequence, and (iii) the ATG starting codon followed by 6His-tag encoded in the N-terminus of the protein. (nih.gov)
  • The end with a free amino group is known as the N-terminus or amino terminus, whereas the end of the protein with a free carboxyl group is known as the C-terminus or carboxy terminus (the sequence of the protein is written from N-terminus to C-terminus, from left to right). (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Engulfment and Motility (ELMO) proteins are involved in the regulation of small GTPase activity in eukaryotic organisms, but little is known about ELMO proteins in plants. (tum.de)
  • Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • green
  • The blood of a cuttlefish is an unusual shade of green-blue, because it uses the copper-containing protein haemocyanin to carry oxygen instead of the red, iron-containing protein haemoglobin found in vertebrates' blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of this luminescent energy is transferred to the GFP, shifting the overall color towards green. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromophore
  • Formation of the red chromophore involves cleaving the peptide backbone but includes almost no other changes in the protein structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorophores
  • Fluorophores can be attached to proteins via specific functional groups, such as amino groups (e.g. via succinimide, Isothiocyanate or hydrazine) carboxyl groups (e.g. via carbodiimide) thiol (e.g. via maleimide or acetyl bromide) azide (e.g. via click chemistry) or non-specificately (glutaraldehyde) or non-covalently (e.g. via hydrophobicity, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • In animals, proteins are needed in the diet to provide the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most proteins consist of linear polymers built from series of up to 20 different L-α-amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once linked in the protein chain, an individual amino acid is called a residue, and the linked series of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms are known as the main chain or protein backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • Typically, expression levels of experimentally introduced proteins are not regulated, and high levels are often preferred to facilitate detection. (nasa.gov)
  • Subsequent time resolved detection of the metal-centered luminescent probe yields the desired signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combining luminescent atomically precise clusters with mesoflowers and nanofibres, he developed sensors at sub-zeptomole levels which are probably the limits of fast molecular detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • The first analyte is linked to a specific binding agent on a solid support such as a polymer and then another reaction couples the first poorly luminescent lanthanide complex with a new better one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homoserine lactone is also a product of the proteolytic reaction of cyanogen bromide (CNBR) with a methionine residue in a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry, site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • The term photoprotein was first used to describe the unusual chemistry of the luminescent system of Chaetopterus (a marine Polychaete worm). (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Notably, the protein contains three EF hand motifs that function as binding sites for Ca2+ ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lanthanides can be used because their small size (ionic radius) gives them the ability to replace metal ions inside protein complex such as calcium or nickel. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • In these cases it is important that both proteins be able to properly fold into their active conformations and interact with their substrates despite being fused. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • By combinatorially pairing genes with a compact set of ribosome-binding sites, we modulate protein abundance by several orders of magnitude. (nih.gov)
  • Reporter genes can also be used to assay for the expression of the gene of interest, which may produce a protein that has little obvious or immediate effect on the cell culture or organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more complex use of reporter genes on a large scale is in two-hybrid screening, which aims to identify proteins that natively interact with one another in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aequorea
  • In the 1960s and 1970s, GFP, along with the separate luminescent protein aequorin (an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of luciferin, releasing light), was first purified from Aequorea victoria and its properties studied by Osamu Shimomura. (wikipedia.org)
  • Residues
  • This has also explained the need for a thiol reagent like beta mercaptoethanol in the regeneration of the protein since such reagents weaken the sulfhydryl bonds between cysteine residues, expediting the regeneration of the aequorin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction is important for chemical sequencing of proteins, as the Edman degradation process is unable to sequence more than 70 consecutive residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after or even during synthesis, the residues in a protein are often chemically modified by post-translational modification, which alters the physical and chemical properties, folding, stability, activity, and ultimately, the function of the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • It is applicable to all kinds of kinase substrates regardless of their nature with no prior modification (peptides, protein, polymer, lipids, and sugars). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The assay is robust as indicated by the high Z' values (over 0.8), homogenous, can be completed in one step after completion of kinase reaction, does not require antibodies or custom synthesized substrates, and is ideal to search for optimal substrates in a collection of peptides, proteins, lipids in one assay format and to screen for ATP and Non-ATP competitive inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pathways
  • Reporter gene assay have been increasingly used in high throughput screening (HTS) to identify small molecule inhibitors and activators of protein targets and pathways for drug discovery and chemical biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luminescence
  • 0.8) , and rapid performance (10 minutes), and its ease of use, the luminescence based Kinase Glo TM, Kinase Glo Plus TM , and now Kinase Glo Max assay platform have gained wide acceptance in many drug screening programs for protein kinase inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transcription of the LuxCDABEG operon results in luminescence due to the expression of LuxA and LuxB, which form a protein known as a luciferase and the expression of LuxC, D, E, and G, which are involved in the synthesis of the luciferase's substrate, tetradecanal. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • However, in the presence of calcium ions, the protein undergoes a conformational change and through oxidation converts its prosthetic group, coelenterazine, into excited coelenteramide and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra (previously called Gonyaulax polyedra) also contains a second protein called luciferin binding protein (LBP) that has been proposed to protect luciferin from non-luminescent oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • luciferase
  • Voltage gated proton channels were subsequently identified in a dinoflagellate confirming their predicted existence Scintillons have been extensively purified from L. polyedra by centrifugation, and these purified scintillon preparations contain luciferase and luciferin binding protein as the only detectable protein components. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was meant to distinguish them from other light-producing proteins because these do not exhibit the usual luciferin-luciferase reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecule
  • They documented the molecular weight, isoelectric point, optical absorption spectra and presence of two iron atoms per protein molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarity in the size of exons and their distribution in the domains of the protein molecule indicates that the evolutionary development of lactoferrin gene occurred by duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • aequorin
  • Chemical characterization of aequorin indicates the protein is somewhat resilient to harsh treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early successful purification of aequorin led to the first experiments involving the injection of the protein into the tissues of living animals to visualize the physiological release of calcium in the muscle fibers of a barnacle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • it is the combined effect of all of the amino acid side chains in a protein that ultimately determines its three-dimensional structure and its chemical reactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • When synthesized, these two proteins aggregate together and migrate to the vacuole membrane where LBP binds luciferin and the scintillons acquires an ability to produce light upon stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • luciferin
  • Unlike photoproteins which stably bind coelenterazine and emit light upon addition of calcium, coelenterazine is normally bound by RrLBP, the luciferin-binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1970s
  • Attention to lanthanide probes increased greatly in the mid-1970s when Finnish researchers proposed Eu(III), Sm(III), Tb(III), and Dy(III) polyaminocarboxylates as luminescent sensors in time-resolved luminescent (TRL) immunoassays. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • These synthetic DNA sequences are composed of three distinct functional parts: (i) a spacer sequence (5′-UTR), (ii) RBS core, which can also be referred to as a modified Shine-Dalgarno sequence, and (iii) the ATG starting codon followed by 6His-tag encoded in the N-terminus of the protein. (nih.gov)
  • The end with a free amino group is known as the N-terminus or amino terminus, whereas the end of the protein with a free carboxyl group is known as the C-terminus or carboxy terminus (the sequence of the protein is written from N-terminus to C-terminus, from left to right). (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Engulfment and Motility (ELMO) proteins are involved in the regulation of small GTPase activity in eukaryotic organisms, but little is known about ELMO proteins in plants. (tum.de)
  • Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • green
  • The blood of a cuttlefish is an unusual shade of green-blue, because it uses the copper-containing protein haemocyanin to carry oxygen instead of the red, iron-containing protein haemoglobin found in vertebrates' blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of this luminescent energy is transferred to the GFP, shifting the overall color towards green. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromophore
  • Formation of the red chromophore involves cleaving the peptide backbone but includes almost no other changes in the protein structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorophores
  • Fluorophores can be attached to proteins via specific functional groups, such as amino groups (e.g. via succinimide, Isothiocyanate or hydrazine) carboxyl groups (e.g. via carbodiimide) thiol (e.g. via maleimide or acetyl bromide) azide (e.g. via click chemistry) or non-specificately (glutaraldehyde) or non-covalently (e.g. via hydrophobicity, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • In animals, proteins are needed in the diet to provide the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most proteins consist of linear polymers built from series of up to 20 different L-α-amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once linked in the protein chain, an individual amino acid is called a residue, and the linked series of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms are known as the main chain or protein backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • Typically, expression levels of experimentally introduced proteins are not regulated, and high levels are often preferred to facilitate detection. (nasa.gov)
  • Subsequent time resolved detection of the metal-centered luminescent probe yields the desired signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combining luminescent atomically precise clusters with mesoflowers and nanofibres, he developed sensors at sub-zeptomole levels which are probably the limits of fast molecular detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • The first analyte is linked to a specific binding agent on a solid support such as a polymer and then another reaction couples the first poorly luminescent lanthanide complex with a new better one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homoserine lactone is also a product of the proteolytic reaction of cyanogen bromide (CNBR) with a methionine residue in a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry, site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • The term photoprotein was first used to describe the unusual chemistry of the luminescent system of Chaetopterus (a marine Polychaete worm). (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Notably, the protein contains three EF hand motifs that function as binding sites for Ca2+ ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lanthanides can be used because their small size (ionic radius) gives them the ability to replace metal ions inside protein complex such as calcium or nickel. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • In these cases it is important that both proteins be able to properly fold into their active conformations and interact with their substrates despite being fused. (wikipedia.org)