• analyte
  • An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • The measured entity is generally called the analyte, the measurand or the target of the assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay usually aims to measure an intensive property of the analyte and express it in the relevant measurement unit (e.g. molarity, density, functional activity in enzyme international units, degree of some effect in comparison to a standard, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tedious method is used because the second more luminescent compound would not bind without the first analyte already present. (wikipedia.org)
  • For sensing purposes, this property is, in general, used either in combination with a biomolecule, such as a protein, which undergoes a conformational change upon ligand binding, changing the distance between the two labels on this protein, or in a competition assay, in which the analyte has to compete with a known concentration of a fixed labelled ligand for the labelled binding site of protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unique arrangement and orientation of one-dimensional linear nucleic acids within this three-dimensional framework results in fundamentally new chemical, biological, and physical properties, which represent a paradigm shift in the use of nucleic acids for intracellular gene regulation, molecular diagnostics, and materials synthesis applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • One- and two-dimensional forms of nucleic acids (e.g., single strands, linear duplexes, and plasmids) are important biological machinery for the storage and transmission of genetic information (Fig. 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The inorganic nanoparticle core (in addition to gold, silver, iron oxide, silica, and semiconductor materials have also been used) serves two purposes: 1) it imparts upon the conjugate novel physical and chemical properties (e.g. plasmonic, catalytic, magnetic, luminescent), and 2) it acts as a scaffold for the assembly and orientation of nucleic acids into the dense arrangement that gives rise to many of their functional properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • If the assay involves addition of exogenous reactants (the reagents), then their quantities are kept fixed (or in excess) so that the quantity (and quality) of the target is the only limiting factor for the reaction/assay process, and the difference in the assay outcome is used to deduce the unknown quality or quantity of the target in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • The assay can be performed directly on samples of food, such as milk and meat, blood or serum and is useful in determining the suitability of a particular antibiotic in treating a particular bacterial infection and in diagnosis of a bacterial infection. (google.com)
  • However, the first staining of biological cells with lanthanides occurred twenty years later when bacterial smears of E. coli were treated with aqueous solutions of a europium complex, which under mercury lamp illumination appeared as bright red spots. (wikipedia.org)
  • After making their way into the digestive tracts of fish and other marine organisms and being excreted in fecal pellets, bioluminescent bacteria are able to utilize their bio-luminescent capabilities to lure in other organisms and prompt ingestion of these bacterial-containing fecal pellets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial species in terrestrial genus such as Photorhabdus are bio-luminescent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Procedure
  • Such industrial scale assays as these are often done in well equipped laboratories and with automated organization of the procedure-from ordering an assay to pre-analytic sample processing (sample collection, necessary manipulations e.g. spinning for separation or other processes, aliquoting if necessary, storage, retrieval, pipetting/aspiration etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications
  • These assays are valuable tools in various water assessment applications due to their high throughput capabilities, relatively low cost and ability to detect cumulative and mixture effects. (biotoxicity.com)
  • The technology has been adapted to water-soluble applications (biological assays). (tynax.com)
  • Higher density microplates (384- or 1536-well microplates) are typically used for screening applications, when throughput (number of samples per day processed) and assay cost per sample become critical parameters, with a typical assay volume between 5 and 50 µL per well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being a new type of fluorescent nanoparticles, applications of CQD lie in the field of bioimaging and biosensing due to their biological and environmental friendly composition and excellent biocompatibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • Some assays (e.g., biochemical assays) may be similar to or have overlap with chemical analysis and titration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus reading of an assay may be quite noisy and may involve greater difficulties in interpretation than an accurate chemical titration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleic acid shell gives the conjugate unique, programmable chemical and biological recognition abilities that offer greater binding strengths and higher duplex stabilities compared to the same sequence of linear DNA, cooperative melting behavior with DNA strands of a complementary sequence, and enhanced cellular uptake without the use of transfection agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • Assays have become a routine part of modern medical, environmental, pharmaceutical, forensic and many other businesses at various scales from industrial to curbside or field level. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • On the other hand, marine genera with bio-luminescent species such as Vibrio and Shewanella oneidensis have different closely related species that are not light emitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • events
  • This approach allows fluorescent proteins to be used as reporters for any number of biological events, such as sub-cellular localization and expression patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • means
  • test the quality of", from Anglo-French assaier, from assai (n.), from Old French essai "trial", and the noun assay thus means "trial, test of quality, test of character", mid-14th century, from Anglo-French assai and the meaning "analysis" is from the late 14th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • perform
  • SERS nanotags may be used to perform in vivo assays. (google.ca)
  • They may be used to perform In-Vivo assays where specific physiological regions, cells, tumour, tissues etc. are targeted by the SERS nanotags as a diagnostic label similar to a fluorophore. (google.ca)
  • The information communication (e.g. request to perform an assay and further information processing) or specimen handling (e.g. collection, transport and processing) that are done until the beginning of an assay are the preanalytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • highly
  • Those assays that are very highly commercially demanded have been well investigated in research and development sectors of professional industries, undergone generations of development and sophistication, and become copyrighted intellectual properties via highly competitive process patenting. (wikipedia.org)
  • hand
  • On the other hand, older generation qualitative assays, especially bioassays, may be much more gross and less quantitative (e.g., counting death or dysfunction of an organism or cells in a population, or some descriptive change in some body part of a group of animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • Since the assay itself (the analytic step) gets much attention, steps that get less attention by the chain of users, i.e. the preanalytic and the post analytic steps, are often less stringently regulated and generally more prone to errors - e.g. preanalytic steps in medical laboratory assays may contribute to 32-75% of all lab errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • For assay of currency coins, this literally meant analysis of the purity of the gold or silver or whatever precious component was used to represent the true value of the coin. (wikipedia.org)
  • An assay (analysis) is never an isolated process and must be combined with pre- and post-analytic procedures. (wikipedia.org)