• tract
  • In addition, specific constituents of these ingredients and peptides released during the enzymatic digestion of constituent proteins in the digestive tract can exert other, non-strict nutritional effects on e.g. feed intake, nutrient digestion, intestinal microbiota, signaling of the immune system or, after absorption, on physiological and metabolic processes. (biomin.net)
  • Acidifiers have proved successful in reducing microbial contamination in the poultry house, thereby reducing the levels of specific Gram-negative pathogens in the intestinal tract. (issuu.com)
  • ENPP7 is a new name for an old enzyme whose activity was originally identified in 1969 by Nilsson as a type of sphingomyelinase that hydrolyses sphingomyelin to ceramide in the intestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the intestinal tract, ENPP7 activity is low in the duodenum and colon but high in the middle of the jejunum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike acid and neutral SMases in the intestinal tract that are rapidly inactivated by pancreatic trypsin, alk-SMase is resistant to trypsin digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus ENPP7 is active in the intestinal lumen and is transported along the intestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • ENPP7 may have important roles in preventing tumorigenesis in the intestinal tract, as ceramide, the product of sphingomyelin hydrolysis, can inhibit cell proliferation and stimulate cell differentiation and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the intestinal tract cholesterol and sphingomyelin are co-exiting in plasma membrane and in lipid vesicles, liposomes and micelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colic can be divided broadly into several categories: excessive gas accumulation in the intestine (gas colic) simple obstruction strangulating obstruction non-strangulating infarction inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (enteritis, colitis) or the peritoneum (peritonitis) ulceration of the gastrointestinal mucosa These categories can be further differentiated based on location of the lesion and underlying cause (See Types of colic). (wikipedia.org)
  • mucus
  • The species name mucosae refers to the mucus binding colonization factor gene mub found in L. mucosae and the related Lactobacillus reuteri. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many Lactobacillus species, including L. mucosae, have a gene that codes for a cell surface mucus binding protein known as mub. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein binds to components in pig intestinal mucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Intestinal juice also contains hormones, digestive enzymes, mucus, substances to neutralize hydrochloric acid coming from the stomach and erepsin which further digests polypeptides into amino acids, completing protein digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • absorption
  • Diamine oxidase metabolizes polyamines and histamine ( 2 , 18 ), and, on the basis of this action and the extracellular location, it is postulated that it prevents the absorption of polyamines and histamine originating from ingested food and intestinal bacteria ( 17 , 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • bacteria
  • Rod-shaped bacteria were frequently associated with the mucosa of CD patients, with both active and inactive disease, but not with controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lactobacillus mucosae is a rod shaped species of lactic acid bacteria first isolated from pig intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • People without the digesting enzyme have hypolactasia , and they have abdominal problems because the undigested lactose becomes fodder for the intestinal bacteria, which releases gas (and other unpleasant things). (breakingmuscle.com)
  • barrier
  • To accomplish this difficult goal, the highly complex mucosa forms an anatomical as well as functional barrier to protect the organism.In this work, we aimed to characterize distinct aspect of the intestinal barrier, focussing on distinct regulation and repair mechanism of the intestinal mucosa. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Lactobacillus mucosae ME-340, and other strains including the patented CNCM 1-4429 strain, have been shown to decrease epithelial permeability and improve epithelial barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Related work has shown that, in addition to transporting IgG across the intestinal epithelial barrier into the lumen, the human neonatal FcR can recycle bound luminal Ag back into the GALT for processing by DC and presentation to T cells in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Both contribute to intestinal barrier function although they are not produced by the intestinal mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intestinal barrier integrity is malleable and multiple mechanisms have been shown to be capable of modulating intestinal permeability (a measure of intestinal barrier function). (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • First, we demonstrate, that the phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) stimulate the migration of intestinal epithelial cells, but, in contrast, inhibit their proliferation. (hu-berlin.de)
  • This experiments demonstrate for the first time, that LPA modulates migration and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells by distinct TGF-b independent pathways. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Alternatively, although normal cell migration may occur, neuroblasts may be subject to apoptosis, failure of proliferation, or improper differentiation within the affected distal intestinal segment. (medscape.com)
  • permeability
  • The poor blood supply also has effects on the vascular endothelium, leading to an increased permeability which first leaks plasma and eventually blood into the intestinal lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic cells
  • Dendritic cells and macrophages can also directly sample the lumen by extending dendrites through transcellular M cell-specific pores. (wikipedia.org)
  • GALT
  • Second, certain populations of T and B cells that are unique to the GALT play a role in directing the responses to intestinal Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • There are also Ab-mediated mechanisms that help Ags cross from the gut lumen into the GALT. (jimmunol.org)
  • ileum
  • The effects of fasting were specific to both time of fasting and the intestinal segment examined (duodenum, jejunum or ileum). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The protective function is not restricted to the intestinal tissue but extends to all tissues because of its transport from the intestinal mucosa to the circulation ( 13 , 15 ). (physiology.org)
  • Several factors increase and possibly regulate the release of diamine oxidase from the intestinal tissue. (physiology.org)
  • The present study examined the action of all major food constituents on the release of intestinal diamine oxidase and compared their effects on enzyme transport into the intestinal lymph and on tissue content. (physiology.org)
  • colitis
  • This effect is mediated by G-protein receptors and is TGF-b-independent, as we could demonstrate in further experiments using bradykinine, phorbole ester, pertussis toxin and suramine to modulate distinct signalling pathways.We then demonstrated, using a well-established animal model of colitis, that LPA enhances intestinal wound healing in-vivo. (hu-berlin.de)
  • A diagnosis of ulcerative colitis may not occur until the onset of intestinal manifestations, however. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • It has been shown to cause necrotic enteritis in mammals and induces necrotizing intestinal lesions in the rabbit ileal loop model. (wikipedia.org)
  • crypt
  • The colon crypts are shaped like microscopic thick-walled test tubes with a central hole down the length of the tube (the crypt lumen). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 7 (E-NPP 7) also known as alkaline sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (Alk-SMase) or intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENPP7 gene. (wikipedia.org)