• foramen
  • Traits distinguishing this new specimen from other wukongopterid pterosaurs include a premaxilla with a low ossified anterodorsal crest, a nasal bearing the most elongated process known in the Wukongopteridae, and a lacrimal that has a foramen in its middle portion. (peerj.com)
  • coronoid
  • There are two rows of teeth adjacent to one another in the lower jaw, with a marginal row on the dentary and an inner row on the coronoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adjacent tooth rows on the coronoid and the dentary of Rhynchonkos were also considered a characteristic that linked it with caecilians. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the same reason, the rami of the lower jaw, which consist of dentary, splenial, angular, and articular elements, with the addition of a coronoid in the boas and a few other small families, are connected at the symphysis by a very extensible elastic ligament. (wikipedia.org)
  • quadrate
  • The ascending branch of the quadratojugal has at its lower rear a tongue-shaped process overlapping the rear of the quadrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quadrate and the maxillary and palatopterygoid arches are more or less movable to allow for the distension required by the passage of prey, often much exceeding the size of the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrae
  • A long and thin ossified tendon is running along the low side of the series of neck vertebrae and neck ribs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case it would be new specimens of teeth, a somewhat fuller premaxilla, an anterior fragment of dentary, and two vertebrae: a sacral and a caudal, which also were unknown to this group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carinodens fossils from Jordan, consisting of an almost complete skull with at least 24 teeth still occupying their natural locations, a complete neck vertebral series as well as several back vertebrae, and front paddles were reported by Kaddumi (2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • These traits included its numerous, small, and closely packed teeth, as well as the vertebrae towards the end of its tail having shallow grooves in place of neural spines on their top surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • frontals
  • The new species demonstrates a number of features unusual within Gelanoglanis including a fontanel bordered by the frontals, a particularly elongate gonopodium in mature males, reductions in the dentition on the premaxilla, and a shorter posterior extension of the maxilla inside the maxillary barbel. (scielo.br)
  • alveoli
  • The alveoli show a marked size decrease between teeth #8 and #7, and the teeth themselves change dramatically in both size and morphology between #8 and #7. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal view
  • 2013)), 8-9 or more pairs of symphyseal teeth in dorsal view (12 pairs according to Benson et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • In dorsal view, the body of the maxilla is nearly straight, and the lateral and medial outlines of the maxilla run parallel (Fig 6B). (nih.gov)
  • incomplete
  • Only seven ornithischian dinosaur species that are currently considered valid have been identified from this unit, with most based on highly incomplete remains, and theropod species-level records are largely restricted to isolated teeth [ 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • upper
  • Its upper margin is also lower than the back of the skull, giving the head a slightly sloping profile (other baurusuchids have high snouts that are level with the rest of the skull). (wikipedia.org)
  • The third maxillary tooth of the upper jaw and the fourth dentary tooth of the lower jaw are greatly enlarged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently a new specimen, PIMUZ T 1559, from the upper Besano Formation at Meride, Ticino, Switzerland, was prepared, revealing a disarticulated skeleton which includes most of the cranium and lower jaw, pre-caudal vertebral column and ribs, the forelimbs, and girdle elements. (frontiersin.org)
  • The shinbone has a vertical ridge on the upper outer side, the crista cnemialis, touching a lower vertical ridge, the crista fibularis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Henry Fairfield Osborn (1903) counted four teeth in the premaxilla, of which the front tooth was the largest in the upper jaw. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maxilla of Carinodens is unknown, which hinders knowledge on the interaction between the lower and upper jaw. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a skull with 3 upper incisors and 2 lower incisors on each side would be given as: I 3/2. (kagiz.org)
  • For example, if a group of mammals are characterized by having 3 upper incisors and anywhere from 2-3 lower incisors depending upon the species , then this is given as I 3/2-3. (kagiz.org)
  • species
  • The build of the teeth is in-between the more spatulate form of basal sauropods and the pencil shape of derived species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of this genus are differentiated from other pliosaurids based on seven autapomorphies, including teeth that are triangular in cross section. (wikipedia.org)
  • The etymology of the specific name was not specified, but it probably refers to the shorter teeth of P. brachydeirus compared to teeth of other species then referred to Plesiosaurus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sinornithoides youngi, the type species, was named and described in 1993/1994 by Dale Russell and Dong Zhiming based on this fossil specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Ejinhoro Formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Langston 1965, p. 14) Additionally Langston referred a series of zyphodont teeth in the area found this species, with some teeth referred to as similar but classified generally to Sebecus sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dollo later erected a separate genus, "Compressidens" for the species in 1924, recognising the more compressed nature of the teeth in comparison to those of Globidens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In investigating feeding on attached prey among juveniles of 19 species of wrasses, we found that patterns of biting in wrasses are influenced by the interaction between the maxilla and a feature of the premaxilla which we term the maxillary crest. (biologists.org)
  • morphology
  • By mosasaur standards, the teeth of Carinodens are unusually heterodont, both in morphology and size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report on a new wukongopterid specimen (IVPP V 17959) from Linglongta, which provides new information on the morphology of the premaxillary crest, that along with other observations suggest that this structure might be interspecific rather than sexually dimorphic at least within this clade of non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs. (peerj.com)
  • basal
  • However, they also noticed more derived euornithopod traits, such as the form of the greater and anterior trochanter of the thighbone, although the premaxilla not reaching the lacrimal, the high jaw joint and the premaxilla being on the same level as the maxilla, were again basal traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very basal ornithischian traits included the presence of six teeth in the premaxilla with only a short toothless sector in front and a short hiatus with the maxillary teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A New Basal Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand. (nih.gov)
  • A new basal hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation of Thailand, Sirindhorna khoratensis gen. et sp. (nih.gov)
  • We describe a new taxon from the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona that is among the oldest North American sauropodomorphs, and analyse its relationships in a restricted basal segment of the sauropodomorph clade, over a limited 'slice' of geological time and in a bounded geographical region. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • crowns
  • Because the anteriormost part of the dentary of Carinodens is relatively slender with small pointed tooth crowns, only the posteriormost five teeth actually functioned for crushing food. (wikipedia.org)
  • palate
  • Pepesuchus also has a ridge on the maxillary shelf of the palate, a feature it shares with all members of the larger clade Sebecia (which includes peirosaurids and the related family Sebecidae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The two taxa also have rows of teeth on the palate in addition to the marginal rows on the maxilla and premaxilla. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, tooth rows on the palate have evolved multiple times independently in early amphibians. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral view
  • The apex of the sub-triangular lacrimal (or ascending) process is located at the two fifths of the total length from the caudal end, and the rostrocaudally elongated maxillary body relative to the height of that apex make the maxilla a low-angled triangle-shape in lateral view (Fig 6A). (nih.gov)
  • closely
  • Carinodens can easily be distinguished from the closely related Globidens by the compressed nature of its teeth and its relatively delicate dentary. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • It was a largely quadrupedal animal, feeding on low scrubby plants, the parts of which were bitten off by the small, elongated head to be processed in the large gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • those on the maxillary teeth are small. (wikipedia.org)
  • Russell (1967) offered a brief diagnosis (due to the fragmentary nature of the fossils) of the genus, then known as Compressidens: "Small projection of dentary anterior to first dentary tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gut contents of Baryonyx included fish teeth and scales, the humerus of a juvenile Iguanadon , and a small phalanx. (blogspot.com)
  • centimetres
  • Using Liopleurodon, another large pliosaurid, as a guide, a specimen found in the Svalbard islands of northern Europe has been estimated to have been 15 metres (49 ft) long, 45,000 kilograms (99,000 lb) in weight and had teeth 30 centimetres (12 in) long. (wikipedia.org)