• sodium
  • The side effects of loop diuretics include increased urine formation, dehydration and sodium deficiency. (brighthub.com)
  • 12-14 Although decreases in intravascular volume from diuretic therapy contribute to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system activation, volume independent mechanisms also play a role, including the direct stimulation of renin release by blocking sodium chloride uptake at the macula densa and upregulation of renin gene expression in the kidney. (ahajournals.org)
  • Eveloff J, Kinne R (1983) Sodium-chloride transport in the medullary, thick ascending limb of Henle's loop: Evidence for a sodium-chloride contransport system in plasma membrane vesicles. (springer.com)
  • Loop diuretics also inhibits NKCC1 at macula densa, reducing the re-absorption of sodium, potassium, and chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and loop diuretics: modulation by sodium balance. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Indomethacin reduced base-line and diuretic-induced increase in plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin II levels and urinary excretion of prostaglandin 6-keto F1 alpha to a similar extent under the two sodium diets. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dietary sodium restriction is a significant determinant of the interaction between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and loop diuretics in healthy volunteers, presumably because it allows loop diuretics to provoke an increase in renal blood flow which participates in their natriuretic action and is blocked by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A multifaceted approach includes sodium restricution, diuretics and, of course, treatment of the underlying condition. (medbullets.com)
  • Impaired sodium reabsorption increases diuresis by three mechanisms: Increases the amount of active osmolytes in urine by decreasing absorption of sodium Erases the papillar gradient Inhibits tubuloglomerular feedback Loop diuretics therefore ultimately result in decreased blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • This review will focus on the data (or lack thereof) supporting the efficacy and safety of loop diuretics in ADHF, discuss the challenges in performing clinical trials of diuretics in ADHF, and describe an ongoing clinical trial designed to rigorously evaluate optimal diuretic use in this syndrome. (ahajournals.org)
  • Despite this breadth of clinical experience, however, high quality data supporting the safety and efficacy of loop diuretics in ADHF are sparse. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 Although modern phase II development programs for new drugs go to great lengths to identify the range of doses that best balance safety and efficacy, these fundamental clinical questions have not been rigorously investigated for loop diuretics. (ahajournals.org)
  • clinical
  • 15 These mechanisms may underlie the clinical observation that loop diuretics are associated with increases in systemic vascular resistance and may initially raise ventricular filling pressures. (ahajournals.org)
  • Loop diuretics usually has a "ceiling" effect where there is a maximum level of dosage where further increase in dosage will not increase the clinical effect of the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine output
  • Background -Rather than the absolute dose of diuretic or urine output, the primary signal of interest when evaluating diuretic responsiveness is the efficiency with which the kidneys can produce urine after a given dose of diuretic. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1973
  • Goldberg M (1973) The renal physiology of diuretics. (springer.com)
  • Piretanide (INN, trade names Arelix, Eurelix, Tauliz) has been synthesized in 1973 at Hoechst AG (Germany) as a loop diuretic compound by using a then-new method for introducing cyclic amine residues in an aromatic nucleus in the presence of other aromatically bonded functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • The review of trials found that diuretics, given from a single dose to one week's treatment, inconsistently improved lung function and oxygen levels in the blood. (cochrane.org)
  • excretion
  • All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some diuretics, such as acetazolamide, help to make the urine more alkaline and are helpful in increasing excretion of substances such as aspirin in cases of overdose or poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a relatively low rate of excretion of calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, loop diuretics promote a significant increase in calcium excretion. (wikipedia.org)