• sequences
  • Overall, 30% of the human genome consists of repetitive DNA sequences [ 5. McMurray CT. Mechanisms of trinucleotide repeat instability during human development. Nat Rev Genet. 2010; 11: 786-799. [ CrossRef ] ">5 ]. (lidsen.com)
  • The presence of trinucleotide repeats (microsatellites), also known as tandem repeat sequences, that are responsible for the development of diseases was identified as a novel type of mutation in the early 1990s [ 6. Krzyzosiak WJ, Sobczak K, Wojciechowska M, Fiszer A, Mykowska A, Kozlowski P. Triplet repeat RNA structure and its role as pathogenic agent and therapeutic target. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012; 40: 11-26. [ CrossRef ] ">6 ]. (lidsen.com)
  • With a primary focus on humans, it is the aim of this review to present an up to date discussion, both of the biological aspects and scientific uses of microsatellite sequences. (bmj.com)
  • Of the remaining 70%, about four fifths comprises sequences that appear to be unique or repeated only rarely (fig 1). (bmj.com)
  • A phylogenetic tree was built based on the sequences of 76 protein-coding genes that are shared by the eleven sequenced representatives of Caryophyllaceae and C. apetalus, and it revealed that C. apetalus and C. quitensis form a clade that is closely related to Silene species and Agrostemma githago . (peerj.com)
  • nucleotide
  • Genes enriched for copy number variations (deletions and duplications) and nucleotide polymorphism were involved in oxidation-reduction processes and encoding domains relevant to transcription factors. (beds.ac.uk)
  • myoglobin
  • Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of myoglobin and cytoglobin genes in response to heat stress in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (auburn.edu)
  • genomic regions
  • Reads mapping coverage analysis enabled the classification of all predicted genes into five groups and uncovered two genomic regions exclusively present in the reference with putative contribution to its higher virulence. (beds.ac.uk)
  • variation
  • Comparative genomics analysis gave insight into the overall genomic variation among this fungal species and also facilitated the identification of several secreted protein coding genes as putative virulence factors for the further functional analysis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of monomers from two different CRM1TR loci shows that gene conversion is the major cause of sequence variation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • phylogenetic
  • Channel catfish hemoglobin genes: Identification, phylogenetic and syntenic analysis, and specific induction in response to heat stress. (auburn.edu)
  • genome-wide
  • 7 by conducting genome-wide linkage scan and association with 64 multiplex Caucasian families where they identified rs613872 to be coinciding with the FECD2 locus previously found by Sundin and colleagues. (arvojournals.org)
  • Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some secreted protein coding genes based on the genome-wide selection pressure, or the presence of variants were proposed as potential virulence candidates. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A genome-wide association study in catfish reveals the presence of functional hubs of related genes within QTLs for columnaris disease resistance. (auburn.edu)
  • quantitative
  • Quantitative trait loci map for growth and morphometric traits using a channel catfish x blue catfish interspecific hybrid system. (auburn.edu)
  • Protein
  • Most (though probably not all) genes have been identified by a combination of high throughput experimental and bioinformatics approaches, yet much work still needs to be done to further elucidate the biological functions of their protein and RNA products. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are an estimated 19,000-20,000 human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factor 4 ( TCF4 ), that encodes for E2-2 protein, a group of E protein transcription factors known for cellular growth and differentiation, is one such gene that has been associated with this disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • Complement regulatory protein genes in channel catfish and their involvement in disease defense response. (auburn.edu)
  • genetic
  • Although the transfer of a number of genes from these organelles to the nucleus prevents them from living independently, each still possesses genetic material in the form of double stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also used in genetic linkage analysis to locate a gene or a mutation responsible for a given trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 , 5 So far, many genes have been attributed to cause this disease, thereby revealing its genetic complexity. (arvojournals.org)
  • however, they are extremely useful in such fields as forensic DNA profiling and genetic linkage analysis, which can be used to search for genes involved in a wide range of disorders. (bmj.com)
  • However, when used to refer to the number of repeating units of genetic information that are sufficient to encode the blueprint for something as complex as a human being, it never ceases to amaze me that this number is big enough! (bmj.com)
  • Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • repetitive
  • The residual fifth is moderately to highly repetitive, and can be divided into two types, depending on whether the individual repeat units are dispersed singularly (interspersed repetitive DNA) or clustered together (satellite DNA). (bmj.com)
  • There are several families of interspersed repetitive DNA, although the two largest are known as short and long interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), 1 and it is to the SINE family that the frequently mentioned Alu repeat belongs. (bmj.com)
  • tumor
  • Expression of tumor suppressor genes in channel catfish after bacterial infections. (auburn.edu)
  • sequence
  • The estimate of the number of human genes has been repeatedly revised down from initial predictions of 100,000 or more as genome sequence quality and gene finding methods have improved, and could continue to drop further. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic information about these molecules and their gene content, based on a reference genome that does not represent the sequence of any specific individual, are provided in the following table. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expansions are apparently dependent on the property of the repeat array to form hairpins, since DSB repair of a CAA 87 repeat induces only contractions of the repeat sequence. (embopress.org)
  • Distinct CRM1TR sequence variants occupy the two CRM1TR loci, indicating that there is little or no movement of repeats between loci, even though they are separated by only ~1.4 Mb. (biomedcentral.com)
  • disease
  • Thirty-four percent of FECD subjects and 5% of control individuals harbor more than 50 trinucleotide repeats, which was considered as the disease threshold. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although the presence of these subtle mechanisms may be beneficial to a whole population, when they go wrong, as is thought to happen in the case of human trinucleotide repeat associated diseases, such as Huntington's disease, the consequences for the individual can be fatal. (bmj.com)
  • For instance, expansion of CAG repeats in the coding region of HD genes in humans can lead to Huntington's disease, most likely through activation of so-called 'toxic' proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • functional
  • In fact "functional DNA", consisting of transcribed genes and regions involved either in transcriptional regulation or in maintaining chromosomal structure/integrity, is thought to comprise less than a sixth of the total human genome. (bmj.com)
  • To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • secondary
  • These data indicate that repair‐ associated DNA synthesis is inhibited by secondary structures formed by CAG 98 and that these structures promote repeat expansions during DSB repair. (embopress.org)
  • Length
  • The complete cp genome of C. apetalus has the length of 151,228 bp, 36.65% GC content, and a quadripartite structure with a large single copy (LSC) of 83,380 bp and a small single copy (SSC) of 17,206 bp separated by inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,321 bp. (peerj.com)
  • expression
  • This combination functions as a transcription complex to turn on androgen gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes in channel catfish is highly regulated and time dependent after bacterial challenges. (auburn.edu)