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  • species
  • We have obtained a comprehensive picture of co-localization preferences of genes for nineteen major carbohydrate metabolism functional classes, over two hundred gene orthologous clusters, and thirty bacterial classes, and characterized the cassette variety in size and content among different species, highlighting a significant role of short cassettes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Numerous studies regarding gene functions are dedicated to specific operons within single genomes or genomes of closely related species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We analyzed overall co-localization tendencies of these genes, belonging to a large and important segment of metabolism, simultaneously in a broad number of bacterial species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These bacterial species contain physically linked genes (Polysaccharide Utilization Loci, PULs). (iamexpat.nl)
  • Within this review, we discuss the major differences as to how the RNAs repress toxin activity, the potential consequences for utilizing different regulatory strategies, as well as the confirmed and potential biological roles for these loci across bacterial species. (mdpi.com)
  • Genes responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms such as F-pilus, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient against antibiotics, which is becoming medically challenging to deal with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inter-bacterial gene transfer was first described in Japan in a 1959 publication that demonstrated the transfer of antibiotic resistance between different species of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure characterizes isolates of microbial species using the DNA sequences of internal fragments of multiple housekeeping genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For each housekeeping gene, the different sequences present within a bacterial species are assigned as distinct alleles and, for each isolate, the alleles at each of the loci define the allelic profile or sequence type (ST). The first MLST scheme to be developed was for Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus both the number and type of housekeeping genes interrogated by MLST may differ from species to species. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, through recent analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences the species was biologically related to the Hylidae and thus removed from its previous group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin was named for its ubiquitous presence among eukaryotes, while UBact ('Ubiquitin bacterial') is very limited in occurrence among the vast number of bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • PafA, (ii) C-terminal sequence that ends exclusively with glutamine or glutamate across bacterial species, (iii) short size (similar to that of ubiquitin) and, (iv) high sequence conservation across tremendous evolutionary distance (a characteristic also in common with ubiquitin). (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • As Jian, Rivera and Lake (1999) put it: "Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes" (see also Lake and Rivera, 2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Moreover, to the exterior of bacterial plasma membranes are certain toxic components (e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Gram-negative bacteria, and peptidoglycan fragments and teichoic acids in Gram-positive bacteria) that play key roles in causing bacterial septic shock or multiple organ dysfunction . (mdpi.com)
  • Horizontal gene transfer is the primary mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, plays an important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution, maintenance, and transmission of virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that lateral gene transfer to humans from bacteria may play a role in cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation is often used in laboratories to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments or for industrial or medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxic activity of LPS was first discovered and termed "endotoxin" by Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, who distinguished between exotoxins, which he classified as a toxin that is released by bacteria into the surrounding environment, and endotoxins, which he considered to be a toxin kept "within" the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done by transforming plant cells in culture, selecting transformed cells and regenerating an entire plant from the transformed cell (e.g. tobacco) When the bacteria with the desired, implanted gene are grown, they are made containing a selector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, a sub-network including NOD2, Il10 and CARD9 seems to indicate a close relationship between IBD and genes related with host interaction with bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjugation-proteasome components neighboring the UBact and Pup loci in these Nitrospirae bacteria show weak similarity and are probably not entirely redundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • From evolutionary perspective, the finding of the UBact-proteasome system in gram-negtive bacteria suggests that either the Pup/UBact-proteasome systems evolved in bacteria prior to the split into gram positive and negative clades over 3000 million years ago or, that these systems were acquired by different bacterial lineages through horizontal gene transfer(s) from a third, yet unknown, organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • virulence
  • Capsules serve as virulence determinants by multiple mechanisms including facilitation of bacterial adherence, evasion of the immune response, and antibiotic resistance . (mdpi.com)
  • BipA, a ribosomal binding GTPase and prolific regulator of EPEC virulence, transcriptionally regulates Ler from an upstream position where it also regulates other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, LOS molecules are responsible for the ability of some bacterial strains to display molecular mimicry and antigenic diversity, aiding in the evasion of host immune defenses and thus contributing to the virulence of these bacterial strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Limited genome walk up- and downstream form R-1 gene, based on it's 100% sequence identity between Poncirus and Citrus, indicates promoter identity of 92% between the two varieties. (deepdyve.com)
  • The locus was given the official name "SPCH1" (for speech-and-language-disorder-1) by the Human Genome Nomenclature committee. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another source of genome instability may be epigenetic or mutational reductions in expression of DNA repair genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. (wikipedia.org)
  • In support of the second possibility, two UBact loci were found in the genome of an uncultured anaerobic methanotrophic Archaeon (ANME-1;locus CBH38808.1 and locus CBH39258.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Four genes in the human genome code for ubiquitin: UBB, UBC, UBA52 and RPS27A. (wikipedia.org)
  • clones
  • Construction of a deep coverage rice BAC library and identification of clones associated with disease-resistant genes]. (nih.gov)
  • horizontal gene tra
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some Lepidoptera (e.g. monarch butterflies and silkworms) have been genetically modified by horizontal gene transfer from the wasp bracovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • A major addition to the understanding of CRISPR came with Jansen's observation that the prokaryote repeat cluster was accompanied by a set of homologous genes that make up CRISPR-associated systems or cas genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Researcher Yoshizumi Ishino and colleagues published their findings on the sequence of a gene called "iap" and its relation to E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Discovery of novel aquatic bacterial enzymes targeting host polysaccharides is the first step to develop new commercial enzyme cocktails for designs of efficient enzymatic pretreatment strategies functionalizing economically appealing biomass as food ingredients. (iamexpat.nl)
  • To create animal models that reflect the human situation more closely and that allow an in vivo assessment of the consequences of differential CYP2D6 drug metabolism, we have developed a novel straightforward approach to delete the entire murine Cyp2d gene cluster and replace it with allelic variants of human CYP2D6 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using a combination of bioinformatics and RNA analyses, they discovered that the gene codes for a novel protein belonging to the forkhead-box (FOX) group of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • In 2012, 163 IBD susceptibility loci were confirmed, which means that 163 alleles that can increase the susceptibility to the disease have been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large number of potential alleles at each of the loci provides the ability to distinguish billions of different allelic profiles, and a strain with the most common allele at each locus would only be expected to occur by chance approximately once in 10,000 isolates. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • An EAL Domain Protein of Salmonella Controls Bacterial Survival in Mice, Anti-oxidant Defense, and Killing of Macrophages: Role of cyclic-diGMP. (cuny.edu)
  • Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FOXP2 protein contains a forkhead-box DNA-binding domain, making it a member of the FOX group of transcription factors, involved in regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, the team identified in CS that the mutation is in the middle of a protein-coding gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory receptor 10G2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10G2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin Bacterial (UBact) is a ubiquitin-like protein that is homologus to Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tir is a receptor protein encoded by the espE gene which is located on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island in EPEC strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxins
  • Despite the intense effort that has been input into investigating the interaction between RTX toxins and host cells during bacterial infection, our understanding of how RTX toxins insert into host cell membranes, and in turn, how host cells respond to the challenge of these toxins remains very limited. (mdpi.com)
  • Several factors can worsen the symptoms of urticaria pigmentosa:[citation needed] Emotional stress Physical stimuli such as heat, friction, and excessive exercise Bacterial toxins Venom Eye drops containing dextran NSAIDs Alcohol Morphine The classification of NSAIDs can be disputed. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Effective strategy for pyramiding three bacterial blight resistance genes into fine grain rice cultivar, Samba Mahsuri, using sequence tagged site markers. (nih.gov)
  • MLST directly measures the DNA sequence variations in a set of housekeeping genes and characterizes strains by their unique allelic profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the data collection step, definitive identification of variation is obtained by nucleotide sequence determination of gene fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteriophage
  • It has also been implicated in non-pathogenic aspects of bacterial ecology, including surface adhesion, bacteriophage sensitivity, and interactions with predators such as amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • More specifically, Ler regulates the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island genes, which are responsible for creating intestinal attachment and effacing lesions and subsequent diarrhea: LEE1, LEE2, and LEE3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ler positively regulates the LEE genes by competition with its homolog, H-NS. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The possibility of recombinations in the resistance locus of Citrus and the need for consistent monitoring for virus infection and gene expression in the transgenic Citrus trees is discussed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Within the past two decades, we have entered into a new RNA regulatory era where countless examples of RNAs that function to control gene expression across all kingdoms of life have been characterized. (mdpi.com)
  • strains
  • Nucleotide differences between strains can be checked at a variable number of genes depending on the degree of discrimination desired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Gene co-localization in linked to co-evolution and co-regulation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Regulation by DegS/DegU has not been shown to be direct and may therefore involve possible intermediate genes. (asmscience.org)
  • isolate
  • citation needed] Despite MLST providing high discriminatory power, the accumulation of nucleotide changes in housekeeping genes is a relatively slow process and the allelic profile of a bacterial isolate is sufficiently stable over time for the method to be ideal for global epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Localization
  • The preference towards co-localization of carbohydrate metabolism genes varies between 40 and 76% for bacterial taxa. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Overall, we describe a complex web formed by evolutionary relationships of bacterial carbohydrate metabolism genes, manifested as co-localization patterns. (beds.ac.uk)
  • diseases
  • Improvement of Basmati rice varieties for resistance to blast and bacterial blight diseases using marker assisted backcross breeding. (nih.gov)
  • CRISPR
  • The first description of what would later be called CRISPR was from Osaka University researcher Yoshizumi Ishino in 1987, who accidentally cloned part of a CRISPR together with the iap gene, the target of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Gene transfer agents, virus-like elements encoded by the host that are found in the alphaproteobacteria order Rhodobacterales. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the researchers sequenced the FOXP2 gene in the KE family, they found a heterozygous point mutation shared by all the affected individuals, but not in unaffected members of the family and other people. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is secreted into the host cell membranes and acts as a receptor for intimin which is found on the bacterial surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • O antigen is exposed on the very outer surface of the bacterial cell, and, as a consequence, is a target for recognition by host antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hydrophobic fatty acid chains anchor the LPS into the bacterial membrane, and the rest of the LPS projects from the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibiotic gene is not usually transferred to the plant cell but remains within the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon phosphorylation, Tir activates condensation and polymerization of actin filaments under the bacterial cell to form a pedestal-like structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOXP2
  • FOXP2 is popularly dubbed the "language gene", but this is only partly correct since there are other genes involved in language development. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOXP2 and its gene were discovered as a result of investigations on an English family known as the KE family, half of whom (fifteen individuals across three generations) suffered from a speech and language disorder called developmental verbal dyspraxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • upstream
  • Further upstream and downstream sequencing indicates the presence of an O-methyl transferase and a Copia like gene respectively in Citrus instead of the amino acid transporter like gene upstream and a sugar transporter like gene downstream in Poncirus. (deepdyve.com)
  • analyses
  • Further analyses of the UBact (and not Pup) locus in Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum revealed its existence and extreme conservation across several gram-negative bacterial phyla, as illustrated in figure 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome
  • PHP1B may be caused by randomly inheriting both copies of the long arm of chromosome 20 from the father rather than a copy from each parent (paternal 20q disomy), genetic mutations or epigenetic changes involving the GNAS or STX16 gene, or by unidentified genetic or epigenetic factors. (nih.gov)
  • This is largely due to loci on chromosome 1 (Muller-Sieburg and Riblet, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • Results of chromosome analysis were normal but segregation analysis of three RFLPs at two loci closely linked to the CF locus on chromosome 7 v ery Mendelian rules of inheritance by showing that the father was homozygous for alleles distinct from those for which the affected daughter was homozygous. (retzepti.ru)
  • At the same time, Michael W. Young's team reported similar effects of per, and that the gene covers 7.1-kilobase (kb) interval on the X chromosome and encodes a 4.5-kb poly(A)+ RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding and RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding . (genecards.org)
  • A genomic region (CLIBASIA_05640 to CLIBASIA_05650) of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' showing hyper-sequence variation or locus mosaicism was identified and investigated using 262 bacterial strains (188 from China and 74 from Florida). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sequence analyses of conserve genomic loci such as 16S rRNA gene and 16S/23S intergenic spacer regions have been used to define ' Ca . Liberibacter' species [ 4 , 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Names and taxonomy' section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition, this invention relates to a means for detecting the presence of a nucleic acid sequence such as a gene or mRNA using a labeled single-stranded hybridization probe containing a complementary nucleic acid sequence. (google.com)
  • Hybridization probes, for example, contain a nucleic acid sequence complementary to the nucleic acid sequence or to the gene to be detected. (google.com)
  • These clones were prepared by synthesizing cDNA from an mRNA mix containing mRNA coding for the desired HLA antigen, inserting the cDNA into a vector, transforming a bacterial host and isolating transformant clones that contain the desired DNA segment by probing with an oligonucleotide probe that is specific for the desired DNA sequence. (google.com)
  • PNAS, 77, 6081-6085 (1980) have also reported cloning a cDNA probe for an HLA gene sequence. (google.com)
  • We are making algorithmic advances in clustering across discrete linear sequences that facilitate maximum likelihood inference of model-averaged clustering in discrete linear sequences of somatic amino acid replacement mutations appearing within mutated genes, and applying evolutionary theory to the repeated evolution of cancer in whole-exome sequence data sets to reveal the level of clonal natural selection for cancer drivers. (yale.edu)
  • Because amino acids of proteins that are functionally important are locally clustered in domains, mutations in multiple tumors that are functionally important to the development of cancer cluster in the linear sequence of relevant genes, allowing inference of relevance and function even in cases without three-dimensional protein structure. (yale.edu)
  • In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Shine-Dalgarno sequence GAGG dominates in bacteriophage T4 early genes, whereas the sequence GGAG is a target for the T4 endonuclease RegB that initiates the early mRNA degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA in tissues and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • this technique is able to establish point mutations, gene deletions, and short sequence insertions in several genomic loci with increased efficiency and time sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic modifications are reversible modifications on a cell's DNA or histones that affect gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic modifications that alter gene expression that cannot be attributed to modification of the primary DNA sequence and that are heritable mitotically and meiotically are classified as epigenetic modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • We are interested in the structure of the TCR on the surface of T lymphocytes, the cytoplasmic signaling proteins that convey the signal to the nucleus and how new genes get turned on by TCR signals. (openwetware.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface proteins not only promote interaction between the invading pathogen and animal tissues, but also provide ingenious strategies for bacterial escape from the host's immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. aureus mutants lacking the srtA gene fail to anchor and display some surface proteins and are impaired in the ability to cause animal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another sub-family of sortases (C60B in MEROPS) contains bacterial sortase B proteins that are approximately 200 residues long. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8407 genes have been identified, coding for 8352 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • UBA52 and RPS27A genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UBB and UBC genes code for polyubiquitin precursor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression contain DNA-binding domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • First, we are applying maximum likelihood approaches that we have developed for model-averaged clustering in discrete linear sequences to somatic amino acid replacement mutations appearing within mutated genes. (yale.edu)
  • These mutations are made in an effort to make a gene encoding a protein that binds the instigating antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The λ-red recombineering system was published in 1998 and allows for insertion, deletion, or mutations to E. coli genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • All the bacterial strains were de-identified and a number was attributed prior to access and analysis. (scienceofgreathealth.com)
  • 7 ] identified an outer member protein gene ( omp ) to differentiate isolates/strains of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' from different geographical origins, although each regions was represented by only one to three strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 8 ] analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a bacteriophage-type DNA polymerase gene and revealed three clusters of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' strains from the Southeast Asia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The IncP-1 plasmid group (IncP plasmids in Escherichia coli) of which RK2 is a part has been described as "highly potent, self-transmissible, selfish DNA molecules with a complicated regulatory circuit" RK 2 was first isolated in connection with an outbreak of antibotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes in Birmingham in 1969, as one of a family of plasmids implicated in transfer of Ampicillin resistance between bacterial strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody
  • The next step in this new gene formation involves V(D)J recombinations and class switch recombinations, i.e. the deletion and subsequent recombination of various gene segments at the heavy chain locus so that the gene codes for either an IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD antibody isotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Research has shown that cells are capable of regulating gene expression at several stages: mRNA transcription, processing and transportation as well as in protein translation, post-translational processing and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • J A Kornacki, C H Chang, and D H Figurski: "kil-kor regulon of promiscuous plasmid RK2: structure, products, and regulation of two operons that constitute the kilE locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequences
  • Many DNA-binding domains must recognize specific DNA sequences, such as DBDs of transcription factors that activate specific genes, or those of enzymes that modify DNA at specific sites, like restriction enzymes and telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • relatively uncoiled in the interphase nucleus (compared with condensed chromosomes), it apparently contains most of the genes. (retzepti.ru)
  • The existence in some species of mitochondrion-derived organelles lacking a genome suggests that complete gene loss is possible, and transferring mitochondrial genes to the nucleus has several advantages. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in a study of Somatic-cell nuclear transfer, it was demonstrated that stable features of differentiation remain after the nucleus is transferred to a new cellular environment, suggesting that a stable and heritable mechanism of gene regulation was involved in the maintenance of the differentiated state in the absence of the DNA binding transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance
  • 11. The seed of claim 10, wherein the single locus conversion confers a trait selected from the group consisting of male sterility, herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, disease resistance, waxy starch, modified fatty acid metabolism, modified phytic acid metabolism, modified carbohydrate metabolism and modified protein metabolism. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The resistance genes confer resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Epigenetic modifications play an important role in gene expression and regulation, and are involved in numerous cellular processes such as in differentiation/development and tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more likely source of cellular plasticity is through the Regulation of gene expression, such that while two cells may have near identical DNA, the differential expression of certain genes results in variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final output of most cellular signaling cascades is gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Bacterial origins regulate orisome assembly, a nuclei-protein complex assembled on the origin responsible for unwinding the origin and loading all the replication machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The essential replication system in RK2 consists of an origin of replication, oriV, and a gene, trfA, whose gene product, the TrfA protein, binds to and activates oriV. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these plasmids most of the genes have been removed, leaving only genes essential for replication and one or more selectable markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • complementary
  • In addition, RK2 contains a set of potentially lethal (to the cell) genes, called kil genes, and a set of complementary transcriptional repressor genes, called kor (short for "kil-override") genes, which inactivate the kil genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • complete gene
  • Sequencing of the complete gene was suggested being Delphinidin chloride a isolated from several clinical samples had been gathered between 2006 and 2012 from the next clinics: Rafic Harrii Beyrouth governmental medical center, Tripoli governmental medical center (TGH), Nini medical center, Rahal hospital, Monla hospital and Ain Wazein Hospital (AWH). (scienceofgreathealth.com)
  • potentially
  • While synthetic bacterial AHLs did not induce persistence, this is potentially due to structural differences between bacterial and archaeal signals, and does not discount a quorum sensing component in haloarchaeal persister formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • selectable
  • In this case, a gene cassette with a dual selectable marker can be incorporated into the DNA at the specific location of mutagenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Our subsequent experimental work focused upon practical applications of BOEC: their use for gene therapy, tissue engineering, assessment of mutant gene effect, and discovery of heterogeneity in endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • Transcription
  • And, while DNA binding transcription factors provide a mechanism for specific control of cellular responses, a model where DNA binding transcription factors are the sole regulators of gene activity is also unlikely. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Alcohol preference may be associated with strain differences in mesolimbic enkephalin gene expression (Ng et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • cells
  • Re-programming by new gene expression is important for the development of the thymocyte precursors of T cells in the thymus and for the response of T lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid organs. (openwetware.org)
  • Compositions of transformed bacterial host cells, such as transformed Lactobacillus buchneri, and use assays are provided. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The haploid-specific genes that cells of both mating types express include Very accurate forex trades, 113). (retzepti.ru)
  • In this context, it can help define the spatial-temporal patterns of gene expression within cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • TCR binding to its ligand causes signaling that re-programs the cell by turning on new genes. (openwetware.org)
  • Such probes have been used to detect the presence of genes coding for antigens responsible for graft rejection, such as cell anemia. (google.com)
  • With the finding that DNA methylation and histone modifications are stable, heritable, and also reversible processes that influence gene expression without altering DNA primary structure, a mechanism for the observed variability in cell gene expression was provided. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Alcohol preference is due to at least two recessive quantitative trait loci that are sex-restricted in expression (Melo et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • It is essential for the expression of these mito- chondrial genes because without RNA editing, eds. (retzepti.ru)
  • Enzyme
  • Ribonuclease H1 also known as RNase H1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASEH1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • affects
  • The gene product also affects fibroblast growth factor signaling, inhibiting or stimulating growth through MAPK/ERK signaling. (genecards.org)
  • When the parent from which a gene is inherited affects the way a gene acts, it is called genomic imprinting . (nih.gov)
  • strain
  • A quasi-congenic QTL introgression strain carrying a low alcohol consumption gene from BALB/c has lower voluntary alcohol consumption than C57BL/6, with 96% of loci in common (Vadasz et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)