• species
  • We have obtained a comprehensive picture of co-localization preferences of genes for nineteen major carbohydrate metabolism functional classes, over two hundred gene orthologous clusters, and thirty bacterial classes, and characterized the cassette variety in size and content among different species, highlighting a significant role of short cassettes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We analyzed overall co-localization tendencies of these genes, belonging to a large and important segment of metabolism, simultaneously in a broad number of bacterial species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Within this review, we discuss the major differences as to how the RNAs repress toxin activity, the potential consequences for utilizing different regulatory strategies, as well as the confirmed and potential biological roles for these loci across bacterial species. (mdpi.com)
  • Genes responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms such as F-pilus, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient against antibiotics, which is becoming medically challenging to deal with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inter-bacterial gene transfer was first described in Japan in a 1959 publication that demonstrated the transfer of antibiotic resistance between different species of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure characterizes isolates of microbial species using the DNA sequences of internal fragments of multiple housekeeping genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For each housekeeping gene, the different sequences present within a bacterial species are assigned as distinct alleles and, for each isolate, the alleles at each of the loci define the allelic profile or sequence type (ST). The first MLST scheme to be developed was for Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus both the number and type of housekeeping genes interrogated by MLST may differ from species to species. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, through recent analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences the species was biologically related to the Hylidae and thus removed from its previous group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin was named for its ubiquitous presence among eukaryotes, while UBact ('Ubiquitin bacterial') is very limited in occurrence among the vast number of bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • PafA, (ii) C-terminal sequence that ends exclusively with glutamine or glutamate across bacterial species, (iii) short size (similar to that of ubiquitin) and, (iv) high sequence conservation across tremendous evolutionary distance (a characteristic also in common with ubiquitin). (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • The number of such links per class range from zero to eight, demonstrating varying preferences of respective genes towards a specific chromosomal neighborhood. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Configurations that genes form in bacterial chromosomes, e.g. chromosomal gene clusters (without a reference to the operon structure, the order of genes, or their orientation) will be further called cassettes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The chromosomal region (locus) contained 70 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further screening of the gene identified multiple additional cases of FOXP2 disruption, including different point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, providing evidence that damage to one copy of this gene is sufficient to derail speech and language development. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998). Different chromosomal-determined genetic elements have shown their functional role in the attachment of A. tumefaciens to the plant cell and bacterial colonization: the loci chvA and chvB, involved in the synthesis and excretion of the b -1,2 glucan (Cangelosi et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • virulence
  • Capsules serve as virulence determinants by multiple mechanisms including facilitation of bacterial adherence, evasion of the immune response, and antibiotic resistance . (mdpi.com)
  • Horizontal gene transfer is the primary mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, plays an important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution, maintenance, and transmission of virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • BipA, a ribosomal binding GTPase and prolific regulator of EPEC virulence, transcriptionally regulates Ler from an upstream position where it also regulates other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, LOS molecules are responsible for the ability of some bacterial strains to display molecular mimicry and antigenic diversity, aiding in the evasion of host immune defenses and thus contributing to the virulence of these bacterial strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Limited genome walk up- and downstream form R-1 gene, based on it's 100% sequence identity between Poncirus and Citrus, indicates promoter identity of 92% between the two varieties. (deepdyve.com)
  • The locus was given the official name "SPCH1" (for speech-and-language-disorder-1) by the Human Genome Nomenclature committee. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another source of genome instability may be epigenetic or mutational reductions in expression of DNA repair genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. (wikipedia.org)
  • In support of the second possibility, two UBact loci were found in the genome of an uncultured anaerobic methanotrophic Archaeon (ANME-1;locus CBH38808.1 and locus CBH39258.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Four genes in the human genome code for ubiquitin: UBB, UBC, UBA52 and RPS27A. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Moreover, to the exterior of bacterial plasma membranes are certain toxic components (e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Gram-negative bacteria, and peptidoglycan fragments and teichoic acids in Gram-positive bacteria) that play key roles in causing bacterial septic shock or multiple organ dysfunction . (mdpi.com)
  • It has been suggested that lateral gene transfer to humans from bacteria may play a role in cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation is often used in laboratories to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments or for industrial or medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxic activity of LPS was first discovered and termed "endotoxin" by Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, who distinguished between exotoxins, which he classified as a toxin that is released by bacteria into the surrounding environment, and endotoxins, which he considered to be a toxin kept "within" the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done by transforming plant cells in culture, selecting transformed cells and regenerating an entire plant from the transformed cell (e.g. tobacco) When the bacteria with the desired, implanted gene are grown, they are made containing a selector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, a sub-network including NOD2, Il10 and CARD9 seems to indicate a close relationship between IBD and genes related with host interaction with bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjugation-proteasome components neighboring the UBact and Pup loci in these Nitrospirae bacteria show weak similarity and are probably not entirely redundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • From evolutionary perspective, the finding of the UBact-proteasome system in gram-negtive bacteria suggests that either the Pup/UBact-proteasome systems evolved in bacteria prior to the split into gram positive and negative clades over 3000 million years ago or, that these systems were acquired by different bacterial lineages through horizontal gene transfer(s) from a third, yet unknown, organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • clones
  • Construction of a deep coverage rice BAC library and identification of clones associated with disease-resistant genes]. (nih.gov)
  • upstream
  • Further upstream and downstream sequencing indicates the presence of an O-methyl transferase and a Copia like gene respectively in Citrus instead of the amino acid transporter like gene upstream and a sugar transporter like gene downstream in Poncirus. (deepdyve.com)
  • The region responsible for this repression function was found to be a 300 base-pair locus upstream of the ompC promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • horizontal gene tra
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some Lepidoptera (e.g. monarch butterflies and silkworms) have been genetically modified by horizontal gene transfer from the wasp bracovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • A major addition to the understanding of CRISPR came with Jansen's observation that the prokaryote repeat cluster was accompanied by a set of homologous genes that make up CRISPR-associated systems or cas genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, this 300 base-pair region is 70% homologous in sequence with the 5' end of the ompF mRNA and thus the transcript of this 300 base pair locus was complementary to the ompF mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Researcher Yoshizumi Ishino and colleagues published their findings on the sequence of a gene called "iap" and its relation to E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • In 2012, 163 IBD susceptibility loci were confirmed, which means that 163 alleles that can increase the susceptibility to the disease have been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large number of potential alleles at each of the loci provides the ability to distinguish billions of different allelic profiles, and a strain with the most common allele at each locus would only be expected to occur by chance approximately once in 10,000 isolates. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FOXP2 protein contains a forkhead-box DNA-binding domain, making it a member of the FOX group of transcription factors, involved in regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, the team identified in CS that the mutation is in the middle of a protein-coding gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a combination of bioinformatics and RNA analyses, they discovered that the gene codes for a novel protein belonging to the forkhead-box (FOX) group of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory receptor 10G3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10G3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin Bacterial (UBact) is a ubiquitin-like protein that is homologus to Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tir is a receptor protein encoded by the espE gene which is located on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island in EPEC strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxins
  • Despite the intense effort that has been input into investigating the interaction between RTX toxins and host cells during bacterial infection, our understanding of how RTX toxins insert into host cell membranes, and in turn, how host cells respond to the challenge of these toxins remains very limited. (mdpi.com)
  • Several factors can worsen the symptoms of urticaria pigmentosa:[citation needed] Emotional stress Physical stimuli such as heat, friction, and excessive exercise Bacterial toxins Venom Eye drops containing dextran NSAIDs Alcohol Morphine The classification of NSAIDs can be disputed. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Effective strategy for pyramiding three bacterial blight resistance genes into fine grain rice cultivar, Samba Mahsuri, using sequence tagged site markers. (nih.gov)
  • MLST directly measures the DNA sequence variations in a set of housekeeping genes and characterizes strains by their unique allelic profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the data collection step, definitive identification of variation is obtained by nucleotide sequence determination of gene fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteriophage
  • It has also been implicated in non-pathogenic aspects of bacterial ecology, including surface adhesion, bacteriophage sensitivity, and interactions with predators such as amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The possibility of recombinations in the resistance locus of Citrus and the need for consistent monitoring for virus infection and gene expression in the transgenic Citrus trees is discussed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Within the past two decades, we have entered into a new RNA regulatory era where countless examples of RNAs that function to control gene expression across all kingdoms of life have been characterized. (mdpi.com)
  • The primary function of asRNA is regulating gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • More specifically, Ler regulates the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island genes, which are responsible for creating intestinal attachment and effacing lesions and subsequent diarrhea: LEE1, LEE2, and LEE3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ler positively regulates the LEE genes by competition with its homolog, H-NS. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Nucleotide differences between strains can be checked at a variable number of genes depending on the degree of discrimination desired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Gene co-localization in linked to co-evolution and co-regulation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Regulation by DegS/DegU has not been shown to be direct and may therefore involve possible intermediate genes. (asmscience.org)
  • functional
  • Analysis of frequently co-localized genes yielded forty-five significant pairwise links between genes belonging to different functional classes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Genes from eleven functional classes tend to co-localize with genes from the same class, indicating an important role of clustering of genes with similar functions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • functional studies of the gene in mice and in songbirds indicate that it is important for modulating plasticity of neural circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolate
  • citation needed] Despite MLST providing high discriminatory power, the accumulation of nucleotide changes in housekeeping genes is a relatively slow process and the allelic profile of a bacterial isolate is sufficiently stable over time for the method to be ideal for global epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Localization
  • The preference towards co-localization of carbohydrate metabolism genes varies between 40 and 76% for bacterial taxa. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Overall, we describe a complex web formed by evolutionary relationships of bacterial carbohydrate metabolism genes, manifested as co-localization patterns. (beds.ac.uk)
  • strands
  • Approximately 450-500 bp internal fragments of each gene are used, as these can be accurately sequenced on both strands using an automated DNA sequencer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this methods, one or both strands of encoding genes can be used as probes. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Improvement of Basmati rice varieties for resistance to blast and bacterial blight diseases using marker assisted backcross breeding. (nih.gov)
  • CRISPR
  • The first description of what would later be called CRISPR was from Osaka University researcher Yoshizumi Ishino in 1987, who accidentally cloned part of a CRISPR together with the iap gene, the target of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • O antigen is exposed on the very outer surface of the bacterial cell, and, as a consequence, is a target for recognition by host antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hydrophobic fatty acid chains anchor the LPS into the bacterial membrane, and the rest of the LPS projects from the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibiotic gene is not usually transferred to the plant cell but remains within the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is secreted into the host cell membranes and acts as a receptor for intimin which is found on the bacterial surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon phosphorylation, Tir activates condensation and polymerization of actin filaments under the bacterial cell to form a pedestal-like structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOXP2
  • FOXP2 is popularly dubbed the "language gene", but this is only partly correct since there are other genes involved in language development. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOXP2 and its gene were discovered as a result of investigations on an English family known as the KE family, half of whom (fifteen individuals across three generations) suffered from a speech and language disorder called developmental verbal dyspraxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the researchers sequenced the FOXP2 gene in the KE family, they found a heterozygous point mutation shared by all the affected individuals, but not in unaffected members of the family and other people. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • Further analyses of the UBact (and not Pup) locus in Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum revealed its existence and extreme conservation across several gram-negative bacterial phyla, as illustrated in figure 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Gene transfer agents, virus-like elements encoded by the host that are found in the alphaproteobacteria order Rhodobacterales. (wikipedia.org)
  • asRNAs may also be produced synthetically and have found wide spread use as research tools for gene knockdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • When bacterial cells are lysed by the immune system, fragments of membrane containing lipid A are released into the circulation, causing fever, diarrhea, and possible fatal endotoxic shock (also called septic shock). (wikipedia.org)