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  • cirrhosis
  • Albumin levels are decreased in chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AST to ALT ratio can also occasionally be elevated in a liver disease pattern in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and it is frequently elevated in an alcoholic liver disease pattern in patients with hepatitis C who have developed cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms having to do with hepatomegaly can include several, among them the individual may experience some weight loss, poor appetite and lethargy (jaundice and bruising may also be present) Among the causes of hepatomegaly are the following: Glandular fever (Infectious mononucleosis) Hepatitis (A, B or C) Liver abscess (pyogenic abscess) Malaria Amoeba infections Hydatid cyst Leptospirosis Actinomycosis Metastatic tumours Hepatocellular carcinoma Myeloma Leukemia Lymphoma Primary biliary cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatic
  • Hepatic (liver) involvement in some diseases can be of crucial importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several biochemical tests are useful in the evaluation and management of patients with hepatic dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anticoagulants: Warfarin Overdose: Used as a treatment for prevention of blood clots, however, like most drugs, side effects have been shown to increase risk of excessive bleeding by functioning in the disruption of hepatic synthesis of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X. Vitamin K is an antagonist to warfarin drug, reversing its activity, causing it to be less effective in the process of blood clotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • reliably
  • This is a good reminder that AST and ALT are not good measures of liver function because they do not reliably reflect the synthetic ability of the liver and they may come from tissues other than liver (such as muscle). (wikipedia.org)
  • An ultrasound of the liver can reliably detect a dilated biliary-duct system, it can also detect the characteristics of a cirrhotic liver,.Computerized tomography (CT) can help to obtain accurate anatomical information, in individuals with hepatomegaly. (wikipedia.org)
  • gamma-glutamyl tr
  • Some tests are associated with functionality (e.g., albumin), some with cellular integrity (e.g., transaminase), and some with conditions linked to the biliary tract (gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase). (wikipedia.org)
  • however, an AST to ALT ratio of 2:1 or greater is suggestive of alcoholic liver disease, particularly in the setting of an elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • AST, also called serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or aspartate aminotransferase, is similar to ALT in that it is another enzyme associated with liver parenchymal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme in the cells lining the biliary ducts of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme is found across a multitude of organisms, prokaryotes and eukaryotes alike, with the same general function but in different structural forms suitable to the environment they function in. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient
  • For patients in whom the primary tumour is controlled and metastases are limited to the lung, criteria for eligibility include the technical resectability of the metastases and the general fitness and lung function reserve of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • shock
  • When AST and ALT are both over 1000 IU/L, the differential can include acetaminophen toxicity, shock, or fulminant liver failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • These criteria have been challenged, however, and today the main criteria are a tumour-free margin and enough functional liver tissue (70%) preserved after surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • citation needed] Among colorectal cancer patients, 15-25% will have liver metastases already when the colorectal cancer is discovered, and another 25-50% will develop them in the three years after resection of their primary cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of patients who die from metastasised colorectal cancer, 20% have metastasis in the liver alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, liver metastasectomy was limited to patients with less than four sites of metastasis in the liver, with a tumour-free margin of at least 1 centimetre, and no cancer elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • The drug is metabolized in the liver by oxidation at the C2 position, reduction at the C3 position, hydroxylation at the C17 position, and conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • The use of metastasectomy evolved in the field of liver resection for metastasised colorectal cancer, but has evolved to include resection of metastases from different primary cancers (such as breast cancer, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, etc.) to the lungs, brain, and other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific cases include: Vitamin-K Deficiency: In the liver, vitamin K plays an important role in the synthesis of coagulation factor II. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Individual results should always be interpreted using the reference range provided by the laboratory that performed the test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some have argued that the excellent results of liver metastasectomy for colorectal cancer are partially confounded by selection bias or reporting bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • medications
  • Some or all of these measurements are also carried out (usually about twice a year for routine cases) on those individuals taking certain medications, such as anticonvulsants, to ensure the medications are not damaging the person's liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Rotor syndrome has many features in common with Dubin-Johnson syndrome, an exception being that the liver cells are not pigmented. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • In humans for example, it is found in many forms depending on its origin within the body - it plays an integral role in metabolism within the liver and development within the skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • In the axial plane, the caudate lobe should normally have a cross-section of less than 0.55 of the rest of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Surgical resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer has been found to be safe and cost-effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • AST/ALT elevations instead of ALP elevations favor liver cell necrosis as a mechanism over cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • Positron emission tomography can be useful to check the entire body for metastases, although the test can be falsely normal with small lesions or preoperative chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)