• oxidation
  • The reaction is conducted at 90-95 °C, and the acetaldehyde formed is separated from water and mercury and cooled to 25-30 °C. In the wet oxidation process, iron(III) sulfate is used to reoxidize the mercury back to the mercury(II) salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • Cirrhosis is the formation of fibrous tissue (fibrosis) in the place of liver cells that have died due to a variety of causes, including viral hepatitis, alcohol overconsumption, and other forms of liver toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Long-term inhalation studies of acetaldehyde produced laryngeal cancers in hamsters and nasal cancers in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Alcohol dependence is associated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke, cancer of the respiratory system, and also cancers of the digestive system, liver, breast and ovaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Death rate amongst current drinkers was higher for 'alcohol augmentable' disease such as liver disease and oral cancers, but these deaths were much less common than cardiovascular and respiratory deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies have found age-dependent mortality risks of low-to-moderate alcohol use: an increased risk for individuals aged 16-34 (due to increased risk of cancers, accidents, liver disease, and other factors), but a decreased risk for individuals ages 55+ (due to lower incidence of ischemic heart disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many liver malignancies are secondary lesions that have metastasized from primary cancers in the gastrointestinal tract and other organs, such as the kidneys, lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only one gene, TP53, is mutated in more than 20% of liver cancers while 41 genes each have hypermethylated promoters (repressing gene expression) in more than 20% of liver cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinogen
  • Thus NIOSH is also concerned about occupational exposure to these nine aldehydes because they (in addition to acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde) may be used as substitutes for formaldehyde, a regulated carcinogen [ Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.1048 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has listed acetaldehyde as a Group 1 carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • In addition, activation of neutrophils in alcoholic liver disease contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular damage by releasing reactive oxygen species (which can damage DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • Results of recent studies in animals indicate an increased incidence of laryngeal cancer in hamsters and nasal cancer in rats following exposure to acetaldehyde. (cdc.gov)
  • cirrhosis
  • Heavy drinking is associated with liver disease, such as cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cirrhosis causes chronic liver failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both monozygotic twins are more likely to be alcoholics and to develop liver cirrhosis than both dizygotic twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cirrhosis is a late stage of serious liver disease marked by inflammation (swelling), fibrosis (cellular hardening) and damaged membranes preventing detoxification of chemicals in the body, ending in scarring and necrosis (cell death). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic
  • But only some chronic alcohol abusers develop liver disease. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Health effects associated with alcohol intake in large amounts include an increased risk of alcoholism, malnutrition, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol liver disease (ALD) accounted for four fifths of all chronic diseases in Ireland in 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic excess alcohol intake, or alcohol dependence, can lead to a wide range of neuropsychiatric or neurological impairment, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, and malignant neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gender: Women are twice as susceptible to alcohol-related liver disease, and may develop alcoholic liver disease with shorter durations and doses of chronic consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although steatosis (fatty liver) will develop in any individual who consumes a large quantity of alcoholic beverages over a long period of time, this process is transient and reversible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcoholism causes development of large fatty globules (macro vesicular steatosis) throughout the liver and can begin to occur after a few days of heavy drinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, the higher levels of fatty acids signal the liver cells to compound it to glycerol to form triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • These triglycerides accumulate, resulting in fatty liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • NIOSH therefore considers acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde to be potential occupational carcinogens and recommends that exposures to each be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • consumption
  • Others have argued that the benefits of moderate alcohol consumption may be outweighed by other increased risks, including those of injuries, violence, fetal damage, liver disease, and certain forms of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Genetic polymorphisms in ADH account for some individual differences in blood alcohol levels after the same alcohol intake but not in susceptibility to alcoholic liver disease. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Genetic factors: Genetic factors predispose both to alcoholism and to alcoholic liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • vinyl alcohol
  • This reaction is catalyzed by mercury(II) salts: C2H2 + Hg2+ + H2O → CH3CHO + Hg The mechanism involves the intermediacy of vinyl alcohol, which tautomerizes to acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • At room temperature, acetaldehyde (CH3CH=O) is more stable than vinyl alcohol (CH2=CHOH) by 42.7 kJ/mol: Overall the keto-enol tautomerization occurs slowly but is catalyzed by acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Three different enzyme systems are known to catalyze this metabolic reaction in adult tissues, however, the contribution of each enzyme system to acetaldehyde production in the developing embryo and fetus is currently unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In a Strecker reaction, acetaldehyde condenses with cyanide and ammonia to give, after hydrolysis, the amino acid alanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL6 and IL8) are thought to be essential in the initiation and perpetuation of liver injury by inducing apoptosis and necrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • The tentative rate equation determined by the method of initial rates is therefore normally verified by comparing the concentrations measured over a longer time (several half-lives) with the integrated form of the rate equation. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • The healthy body has kidneys, a liver, skin, even lungs that are detoxifying as we speak," he says. (theguardian.com)
  • NADH
  • These oxidative reactions generate hydrogen, which converts nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to its reduced form (NADH), increasing the redox potential (NADH/NAD) in the liver. (merckmanuals.com)
  • produces
  • The hydroformylation of methanol with catalysts like cobalt, nickel, or iron salts also produces acetaldehyde, although this process is of no industrial importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis, the liver produces a mutated transthyretin protein which has severe neurodegenerative and/or cardiopathic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemochromatosis
  • Iron overload (Hemochromatosis) Diet: Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A and E deficiencies, can worsen alcohol-induced liver damage by preventing regeneration of hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • It can have a variety of long-term adverse effects on health, for instance liver damage, brain damage, and increased risk of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Epigenetic alterations and mutations affect the cellular machinery that may cause the cell to replicate at a higher rate and/or result in the cell avoiding apoptosis, and thus contribute to liver disease. (wikipedia.org)