• humans
  • The potential for acetaldehyde or malonaldehyde to produce cancer in humans has not been determined, but reducing occupational exposures to these chemicals should lower the risk. (cdc.gov)
  • reactive
  • In addition, activation of neutrophils in alcoholic liver disease contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular damage by releasing reactive oxygen species (which can damage DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Long-term inhalation studies of acetaldehyde produced laryngeal cancers in hamsters and nasal cancers in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • A study of 818 heavy drinkers found that those who are exposed to more acetaldehyde than normal through a defect in the gene for alcohol dehydrogenase are at greater risk of developing cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol dependence is associated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke, cancer of the respiratory system, and also cancers of the digestive system, liver, breast and ovaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Death rate amongst current drinkers was higher for 'alcohol augmentable' disease such as liver disease and oral cancers, but these deaths were much less common than cardiovascular and respiratory deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies have found age-dependent mortality risks of low-to-moderate alcohol use: an increased risk for individuals aged 16-34 (due to increased risk of cancers, accidents, liver disease, and other factors), but a decreased risk for individuals ages 55+ (due to lower incidence of ischemic heart disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many liver malignancies are secondary lesions that have metastasized from primary cancers in the gastrointestinal tract and other organs, such as the kidneys, lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only one gene, TP53, is mutated in more than 20% of liver cancers while 41 genes each have hypermethylated promoters (repressing gene expression) in more than 20% of liver cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinogens
  • Acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde both meet the criteria of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for classifying substances as potential occupational carcinogens [ Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1990 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Every time stem cells divide, they become exposed to unavoidable errors associated with cell division (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication and chromosomal alterations occurring during mitosis) and also become highly vulnerable to the genotoxic activity of DNA-damaging agents (e.g., acetaldehyde and tobacco carcinogens). (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • However, indirect evidence can be gathered through a battery of blood tests, which demonstrate levels of liver enzymes in the blood. (medindia.net)
  • Alcoholic liver disease often runs in families, suggesting genetic factors (eg, deficiency of cytoplasmic enzymes that eliminate alcohol). (merckmanuals.com)
  • carcinogenic
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has determined that acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde are potentially carcinogenic to occupationally exposed workers. (cdc.gov)
  • concentrations
  • The tentative rate equation determined by the method of initial rates is therefore normally verified by comparing the concentrations measured over a longer time (several half-lives) with the integrated form of the rate equation. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemochromatosis
  • Iron overload (Hemochromatosis) Diet: Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A and E deficiencies, can worsen alcohol-induced liver damage by preventing regeneration of hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • As acetaldehyde is one of the major causes of the symptoms of a "hangover", this produces immediate and severe negative reaction to alcohol intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • These signs and symptoms may be either a direct result of the failure of liver cells, or secondary to the resultant portal hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • disulfiram
  • Disulfiram may cause liver damage. (ncaddoc.org)
  • Disulfiram works by inhibiting the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which means that many of the effects of a "hangover" are felt immediately after alcohol is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clinical trial of disulfiram with copper gluconate against liver cancer is being conducted in Utah (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00742911) and a clinical trial of disulfiram as adjuvant against lung cancer is happening in Israel (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00312819). (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis
  • drinking a six-pack of beer daily would be in the middle of the range) for 20 years or more in men, or 20g/day for women significantly increases the risk of hepatitis and fibrosis by 7% to 47%, Pattern of drinking: Drinking outside of meal times increases up to 3 times the risk of alcoholic liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis C infection: A concomitant hepatitis C infection significantly accelerates the process of liver injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL6 and IL8) are thought to be essential in the initiation and perpetuation of liver injury by inducing apoptosis and necrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Liver disease can occur through several mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcoholism causes development of large fatty globules (macro vesicular steatosis) throughout the liver and can begin to occur after a few days of heavy drinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Subsequently, the higher levels of fatty acids signal the liver cells to compound it to glycerol to form triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADH
  • These oxidative reactions generate hydrogen, which converts nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to its reduced form (NADH), increasing the redox potential (NADH/NAD) in the liver. (merckmanuals.com)
  • produces
  • In transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis, the liver produces a mutated transthyretin protein which has severe neurodegenerative and/or cardiopathic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • esophageal
  • The negative effects include increased risk of liver diseases, oropharyngeal cancer, esophageal cancer and pancreatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • It can have a variety of long-term adverse effects on health, for instance liver damage, brain damage, and increased risk of cancer. (wikipedia.org)