• obese
  • The primary goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of: 1) the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese subjects, and 2) the effect of marked weight loss on the histologic and metabolic abnormalities associated with NAFLD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Studies on AdPLA deficient and genetically obese mice (leptin deficiency) have also shown similar effects, reduced adipose tissue mass and increased lipolysis by reduction in PGE2 and EP3 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body composition also showed a higher percentage of water and lean tissue mass compared to non-AdPLA deficient obese mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Insulin is derived from a 74-amino-acid prohormone molecule called proinsulin . (britannica.com)
  • Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is broken down to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate) to give a fatty acyl-adenylate, which then reacts with free coenzyme A to give a fatty acyl-CoA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In living organisms, succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mobilization and Cellular Uptake of Stored Fats (with Animation) HSL functions to hydrolyze either a fatty acid from a triacylglycerol molecule, freeing a fatty acid and diglyceride, or a fatty acid from a diacylglycerol molecule, freeing a fatty acid and monoglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • When the level of blood glucose falls, secretion of insulin stops, and the liver releases glucose into the blood. (britannica.com)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. (jci.org)
  • Although the molecular mechanism leading to the development of hepatic steatosis in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex, recent animal models have shown that modulating important enzymes in fatty acid synthesis in liver may be key for the treatment of NAFLD. (jci.org)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is gaining increasing recognition as a component of the epidemic of obesity in the United States as well as in other parts of the world. (jci.org)
  • The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple fatty liver (hepatic steatosis), with benign prognosis, to a potentially progressive form, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. (jci.org)
  • As we will discuss, despite the existing correlation between fatty liver and insulin resistance, it remains unclear whether insulin resistance causes the excessive accumulation of TG in liver, or whether the increase in TG itself or of metabolite intermediates may play a causal role in the development of hepatic or systemic insulin resistance. (jci.org)
  • Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of perlipin 2 involves the formation of lipid droplets, formation of fatty liver by increasing uptake of fatty acids etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreased expression of perlipin 2 decreases the fatty liver while increase expression of perlipin is associated with several metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, heart diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcoholic liver diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are two types of conditions associated with lipid accumulation at liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortisol also plays an important, but indirect, role in liver and muscle glycogenolysis, the breaking down of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate and glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This response allows the liver to take up glucose not being used by the peripheral tissue and turn it into liver glycogen stores to be used if the body moves into the starvation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • This has the effect of increasing the half-life of the hormone and decreasing the rate at which it is taken up by peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • corticotropin-releasi
  • Mice with homozygous disruptions in the corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (see below) die at birth due to pulmonary immaturity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though IL-1 is useful in combating some diseases, endotoxic bacteria have gained an advantage by forcing the hypothalamus to increase cortisol levels (forcing the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone, thus antagonizing IL-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • decreases
  • The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • In addition, fatty acids are important components of the phospholipids that form the phospholipid bilayers out of which all the membranes of the cell are constructed (the cell wall, and the membranes that enclose all the organelles within the cells, such as the nucleus, the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • the tissues of the central nervous system cannot use fatty acids, despite containing mitochondria, because long chain fatty acids (as opposed to medium chain fatty acids) cannot cross the blood brain barrier into the interstitial fluids that bathe these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), an energy-yielding process shared by all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Insulin , hormone that regulates the level of sugar ( glucose ) in the blood and that is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas . (britannica.com)
  • inert
  • Adipose tissue is not an inert cell mass contributing only to the storage of fat, but a sophisticated ensemble of cellular components with highly specialized and complex functions. (nature.com)
  • humans
  • However, a recent profusion of studies in functional imaging and molecular biology has demonstrated that BAT is a functionally active tissue in adult humans [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, over the last decade, metabolic imaging and radiological studies based on the use of isotopic glucose analog fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) have provided conclusive evidence that BAT exists in adult humans. (hindawi.com)
  • In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of brown adipose tissue in adult humans was discovered during FDG-PET scans to detect metastatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • utilization
  • These changes include increased production of inflammation-related adipokines (such as IL-6, leptin, Angptl4, and VEGF), an increase in glucose utilization and lactate production, and the induction of fibrosis and insulin resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • glycogen
  • A large fraction of glucose absorbed from the small intestine is immediately taken up by hepatocytes, which convert it into glycogen. (jci.org)
  • mainly
  • The human organism has extensive fuel reserves that can meet energy demands for substantial periods and that are represented mainly by adipose tissue ( 14a ). (physiology.org)
  • substrate
  • In fact, some early FDG-PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) scans noted "tumor-like" substrate uptake in the regions suggested to contain BAT [ 5 , 7 , 8 ] (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • physiological
  • The expression of these adipokines is an integrated response to various signals received from many organs, which depends heavily on the integrity and physiological status of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • proteins
  • Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-115 amino acid sequences at N-terminal is highly similar with other perlipin family proteins and is required for stabilization of lipid droplets, 103-215 mid- region is needed for binding at lipid droplets while the C-terminal sequence from 220-437 forms four helix bundle. (wikipedia.org)