• protein
  • These processes are crucial for survival and serve to protect the organism from excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains that can be used for synthesis of newly formed glucose ( 14 , 26 , 87 , 99 ). (physiology.org)
  • Here we provide background about the similarities between each member of the three protein families and highlight differences in biological function that have been revealed by studies of tissue expression and regulation and the effects of overexpression or deficiency in mouse models and human disease. (physiology.org)
  • AdPLA regulates adipocyte lipolysis and release of fatty acids through a G-protein coupled pathway involving prostaglandin and EP3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on AdPLA have shown lipolysis regulation following a G-protein coupled pathway in WAT. (wikipedia.org)
  • The β5 loop folds back into the protein core, bringing one of the electrophiles of the oxyanion hole into position for lipolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) released from the anterior pituitary gland binds the TSH receptor (a Gs protein-coupled receptor) on the basolateral membrane of the cell and stimulates the endocytosis of the colloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, this is not the same as the presence of Myf5 protein, which is involved in the development of many tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long chain free fatty acids enter the metabolizing cells (i.e. most living cells in the body except red blood cells and neurons in the central nervous system) through specific transport proteins, such as the SLC27 family fatty acid transport protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose differentiation-related protein, also known as perilipin 2 , ADRP or adipophilin, is a protein which belongs from PAT family of cytoplasmic lipid droplet(CLD) binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) was first characterized as an mRNA molecule that express early in adipocyte differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human, the gene for adipose differentiation related protein is located at short p arm of chromosome 9 at region 22 band 1 from base pair 19108391 to 19127606 (GRCh38.p7) (map). (wikipedia.org)
  • The proposed models for adipose differentiation related protein (perilipin 2) is maintained by the protein model portal. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Insulin is derived from a 74-amino-acid prohormone molecule called proinsulin . (britannica.com)
  • Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is broken down to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate) to give a fatty acyl-adenylate, which then reacts with free coenzyme A to give a fatty acyl-CoA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mobilization and Cellular Uptake of Stored Fats (with Animation) HSL functions to hydrolyze either a fatty acid from a triacylglycerol molecule, freeing a fatty acid and diglyceride, or a fatty acid from a diacylglycerol molecule, freeing a fatty acid and monoglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • In addition, fatty acids are important components of the phospholipids that form the phospholipid bilayers out of which all the membranes of the cell are constructed (the cell wall, and the membranes that enclose all the organelles within the cells, such as the nucleus, the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • the tissues of the central nervous system cannot use fatty acids, despite containing mitochondria, because long chain fatty acids (as opposed to medium chain fatty acids) cannot cross the blood brain barrier into the interstitial fluids that bathe these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), an energy-yielding process shared by all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • utilization
  • These changes include increased production of inflammation-related adipokines (such as IL-6, leptin, Angptl4, and VEGF), an increase in glucose utilization and lactate production, and the induction of fibrosis and insulin resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • peripheral
  • This has the effect of increasing the half-life of the hormone and decreasing the rate at which it is taken up by peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • corticotropin-releasi
  • Mice with homozygous disruptions in the corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (see below) die at birth due to pulmonary immaturity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though IL-1 is useful in combating some diseases, endotoxic bacteria have gained an advantage by forcing the hypothalamus to increase cortisol levels (forcing the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone, thus antagonizing IL-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • decreases
  • The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in saturated fat, and in particular, myristic acid, was associated with increases in larger LDL particles ( and decreases in smaller LDL particles [did you spot this inset? (blogspot.com)
  • humans
  • However, a recent profusion of studies in functional imaging and molecular biology has demonstrated that BAT is a functionally active tissue in adult humans [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of brown adipose tissue in adult humans was discovered during FDG-PET scans to detect metastatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Insulin , hormone that regulates the level of sugar ( glucose ) in the blood and that is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas . (britannica.com)
  • inert
  • Adipose tissue is not an inert cell mass contributing only to the storage of fat, but a sophisticated ensemble of cellular components with highly specialized and complex functions. (nature.com)
  • substrate
  • In fact, some early FDG-PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) scans noted "tumor-like" substrate uptake in the regions suggested to contain BAT [ 5 , 7 , 8 ] (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • glycogen
  • A large fraction of glucose absorbed from the small intestine is immediately taken up by hepatocytes, which convert it into glycogen. (jci.org)
  • mainly
  • The human organism has extensive fuel reserves that can meet energy demands for substantial periods and that are represented mainly by adipose tissue ( 14a ). (physiology.org)
  • physiological
  • The expression of these adipokines is an integrated response to various signals received from many organs, which depends heavily on the integrity and physiological status of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • proteins
  • Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-115 amino acid sequences at N-terminal is highly similar with other perlipin family proteins and is required for stabilization of lipid droplets, 103-215 mid- region is needed for binding at lipid droplets while the C-terminal sequence from 220-437 forms four helix bundle. (wikipedia.org)