• biological
  • These lipids have been shown to have potent biological activities in the plant and animal kingdoms, but much of what is known about them pertains to their regulation of animal physiology and behavior. (asbmb.org)
  • Furthermore, certain NAE types are known to have potent biological activities in plant cells at micromolar concentrations, prompting speculation that an NAE lipid mediator pathway may influence growth processes and stress responses in plants (3). (asbmb.org)
  • In biology, a lipid is a substance of biological origin that is soluble in nonpolar solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits or "building-blocks": ketoacyl and isoprene groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fatty acid structure is one of the most fundamental categories of biological lipids, and is commonly used as a building-block of more structurally complex lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The end products of lipid peroxidation are reactive aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the second one being known also as "second messenger of free radicals" and major bioactive marker of lipid peroxidation, due to its numerous biological activities resembling activities of reactive oxygen species. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Dowhan W and Bogdanov M (2012) Lipid‐assisted membrane protein folding and topogenesis. (els.net)
  • NK-T cells are a small and unusual class of T cells that recognize lipid, rather than protein-derived antigen. (sciencemag.org)
  • report that as for protein antigen, intracellular processing may be an obligate part of presentation of lipids to T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • While NAEs may not necessarily act in plants as ligands for G-protein coupled receptors like some do in animal systems, the evolutionary conservation of the occurrence of these lipid mediators and their metabolic machinery is striking (4). (asbmb.org)
  • Studies of the physical properties and phase behavior of lipids have shown that lipids can also play dynamic roles and can respond to changes in their environment by undergoing phase transitions, alterations in lipid- lipid and lipid-protein interactions, and by release or uptake of cations or protons. (springer.com)
  • So I want to ask whether you already found some sollution, because I only have a kit from calbiochem and I'm afraid that I will lose to much protein, when I try to get rid of the lipids using it. (bio.net)
  • In some cases, the hydrated region can extend much further, for instance in lipids with a large protein or long sugar chain grafted to the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets also serve as platforms for protein binding and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycerol
  • In an organic chemistry general sense, an ether lipid implies an ether bridge between an alkyl group (a lipid) and an unspecified alkyl or aryl group, not necessarily glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ether lipid may also refer to alkylglycerols, such as chimyl, batyl, and selachyl alcohols, with a ether-bound lipid on position sn-1, and the other two positions on the glycerol backbone unoccupied. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-adipocytes, lipid droplets are known to play a role in protection from lipotoxicity by storage of fatty acids in the form of neutral triacylglycerol, which consists of three fatty acids bound to glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelet-activa
  • Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is an ether lipid which has an acetyl group instead of an acyl chain at the second position (SN-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ether lipids can also act directly in cell signaling, as the platelet-activating factor is an ether lipid signaling molecule that is involved in leukocyte function in the mammalian immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • full citation needed] If not terminated fast enough, there will be damage to the cell membrane, which consists mainly of lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, development of immunochemical detection of HNE-histidine adducts opened more advanced methodological possibilities for qualitative and quantitative detection of lipid peroxidation in various human and animal tissues[full citation needed] as well as in body fluids, including human serum and plasma samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • droplets
  • Laughlen first described lipid pneumonia in 1925 with infants that inhaled oil droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets are found in all eukaryotic organisms and store a large portion of lipids in mammalian adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, lipid droplets are known to be exploited by pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus, the dengue virus and chlamydia trachomatis among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets vary greatly in size, ranging from 20-40 nm to 100 um. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid droplets have also been observed to be created by the fission of existing lipid droplets, though this is thought to be less common than de novo formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin resistance
  • However, an increase in muscle insulin resistance, caused by obesity, diabetes mellitus type 2, and metabolic syndrome, will result in an excess accumulation of intramyocellular lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other expert opinions and researchers argue the exact opposite: that accumulation of intramyocellular lipids would, in fact, be the cause of the insulin resistance that leads to type II diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These lipid intermediates can impair insulin signaling, which is referred to as lipid-induced insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • This process involved the removal of a terminal sugar group by the enzyme α-galactosidase, thus permitting the association of the modified lipid with the presenting molecule CD1d. (sciencemag.org)
  • structural
  • 2005) Structural basis for lipid‐mediated interactions between mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier monomers. (els.net)
  • Historically lipids were thought to merely serve a structural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • In 2016, Plant Lipids is one of the producers of spice extracts, essential oils and natural food colours in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Lipids are at the centre of membrane fusion events essential for intracellular transport, endocytosis and viral infection of cells by enveloped viruses. (els.net)
  • Differential Impact of Intracellular Carboxyl Terminal Domains on Lipid Raft Localization of the Murine Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • polar
  • In archaea, ether lipids are the major polar lipids in the cell envelope and their abundance is one of the major characteristics that separate this group of prokaryotes from the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rafts
  • Although more common in plasma membrane, lipid rafts have also been reported in other parts of the cell, such as the Golgi apparatus and lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To offset the elevated sphingolipid levels, phosphatidylcholine levels are decreased which results in similar choline-containing lipid levels between the rafts and the surrounding plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • By one early definition of lipid rafts, lipid rafts differ from the rest of the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • have hypothesized that the lipid rafts can be extracted from a plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extraction would take advantage of lipid raft resistance to non-ionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 or Brij-98 at low temperatures (e.g., 4 °C). When such a detergent is added to cells, the fluid membrane will dissolve while the lipid rafts may remain intact and could be extracted. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymatic
  • Membrane microheterogeneity is sometimes inferred from the behavior of enzymes, where the enzymatic activity does not appear to be correlated with the average lipid physical state exhibited by the bulk of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • intravenous
  • Many medical experts who oppose the technique have pointed out the slimy discharge how the body deals with any excess of intestinal and intravenous lipids, and it is a sign of high risk of artery damage and poor water absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid emulsion or fat emulsion refers to an emulsion of lipid for human intravenous use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid emulsions are effective in treating experimental models of severe cardiotoxicity from intravenous overdose of local anaesthetic drugs such as bupivacaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propofol is dissolved in a lipid emulsion for intravenous use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravenous lipid emulsions have been used experimentally since at least the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipase
  • Lipids then continue to the stomach where chemical digestion continues by gastric lipase and mechanical digestion begins (Peristalsis). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Lipids are commonly found in plant seeds, according to Cyber Lipid. (ehow.com)
  • Lipid panels are commonly ordered as part of a physical exam, along with other panels such as the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Differences between the catabolism of ether glycerophospholipids by specific phospholipases enzymes might be involved in the generation of lipid second messenger systems such as prostaglandins and arachidonic acid that are important in signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • ester
  • A saponifiable lipid is one with an ester functional group, that can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • essential
  • Although humans and other mammals use various biosynthetic pathways both to break down and to synthesize lipids, some essential lipids cannot be made this way and must be obtained from the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • These animals do not survive past embryonic day 8, indicating that the removal of lipid hydroperoxides is essential for mammalian life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intralipid and other balanced lipid emulsions provide essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemistry Essential fatty acid Lipid raft Lipid signaling Saturation (chemistry) Biomembranes, Molecular structure and function, by Robert B. Gennis, p. 164, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • With the emergence of cardiovascular disease as a major cause of death in the Western world in the middle of the 20th century, the lipid hypothesis received greater attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the end of the 1980s, there were widespread academic statements that the lipid hypothesis was proven beyond reasonable doubt, or, as one article stated, "universally recognized as a law. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoid
  • The terms lipoid, lipin, lipide and lipid have been used with varied meanings from author to author. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid pneumonia or lipoid pneumonia is a specific form of lung inflammation (pneumonia) that develops when lipids enter the bronchial tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The concentration of blood lipids depends on intake and excretion from the intestine , and uptake and secretion from cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • However concerning my problem: when I lyse my cells (oligodendrocytes) I too have lipids in the lysate. (bio.net)
  • Endogenous: from the body itself, for example, when an airway is obstructed, it is often the case that distal to the obstruction, lipid-laden macrophages (foamy macrophages) and giant cells fill the lumen of the disconnected airspace. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adipocytes, lipid bodies tend to be larger and they may compose the majority of the cell, while in other cells they may only be induced under certain conditions and are considerably smaller in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • Lipid domains are not readily isolated and examined as unique species, in contrast to the examples of lateral heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structures
  • 2007) Structures and physiological roles of 13 integral lipids of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase. (els.net)
  • nonpolar
  • These lipids belong to a heterogeneous class of predominantly nonpolar compounds, mostly insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents such as chloroform and benzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • analogue
  • An example of this is the measurement of the diffusion coefficient of a fluorescent lipid analogue in soybean protoplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Plants contain lipids that are needed by animals. (ehow.com)
  • Lipids found in plants play an important part in market values. (ehow.com)
  • Vegetable oil, olive oil, canola oil and avocado oil are all acquired from plants that contain these lipids. (ehow.com)
  • Studies of the NAE regulatory pathway in plants have begun to reveal how this lipid-based signaling pathway modulates plant growth and responses to the environment. (asbmb.org)
  • Plant Lipids has 16 processing plants across 3 Indian states and in Sri Lanka. (wikipedia.org)