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  • fatty acids
  • In enzymology, an acylglycerol lipase (EC 3.1.1.23) is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction that uses water molecules to break the glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Consistently annotated aligned sequences and superimposed structures of microbial lipases help to understand the functional role of individual amino acids and thus the LED is a useful tool for protein engineering. (bio.net)
  • We have also set up a mailing list as a forum for discussions and announcements on topics related to protein engineering of lipases. (bio.net)
  • This protein belongs to the pancreatic lipase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • duodenum
  • Intestinal ulcers, especially in the upper portion of the small intestine known as the duodenum, may also raise lipase levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Studies have shown that even in these cases, lingual lipase is present in normal amounts, and contributes to greater than 90% of total lipase activity in duodenum. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be attributed to the fact that lingual lipase has a low pH optimum and can thus remain active through the stomach into the duodenum, where there is a low pH in patients with CF. It has, thus, been proposed that a possible treatment option for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency would be enzyme replacement therapy using lingual lipase, increasing the amount of dietary fat absorption and decreasing the risk of malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triacylglycerol + 2 H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-monoacylglycerol + 2 fatty acid anions Bile salts secreted from the liver and stored in gallbladder are released into the duodenum, where they coat and emulsify large fat droplets into smaller droplets, thus increasing the overall surface area of the fat, which allows the lipase to break apart the fat more effectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • Lipase inhibitors are substances used to reduce the activity of lipases found in the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipase inhibitors may affect the amount of fat absorbed, yet they do not block the absorption of a particular type of fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, lipase inhibitors are not absorbed into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that lipase inhibitors work optimally when 40% of an individual's daily caloric intake is obtained from fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipase inhibitors can be found naturally in plants and can also be produced as Drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipase inhibitors can cause side effects, including oily spotting, fecal incontinence, flatus with discharge and abdominal cramping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since lipase inhibitors are not absorbed in the intestine, and consequently not circulating in the blood, information about alternative side effects such as the modulation[clarification needed] of the gastrointestinal tract is unobtainable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovery and development of gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors Aronne, Louis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipase inhibitors have a role to be used as a remedy for obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant-based lipase inhibitors hold great hope to fulfill the need . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipase inhibitors belong to a drug class that is used as an antiobesity agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipase inhibitors are classified in the ATC-classification system as A08AB (peripherally acting antiobesity products). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipase inhibitors have also shown anticancer activity, by inhibiting fatty acid synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipase inhibitors lipstatin and orlistat act locally in the intestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiency
  • This fact, in combination with the bile salt deficiency and low pH throughout the gastrointestinal tract of the neonate, demands that lingual lipase be the main enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of dietary fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acid lipase disease or deficiency is a name used to describe two related disorders of fatty acid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • The methods include the preparation of a variety of radiolabeled and fluorescent substrates for the determination of lipolytic activity, proven strategies for the expression and purification of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and the characterization of lipases by such techniques as immunodetection, subunit size determination, lipase kinetics, and ligand interactions. (springer.com)
  • A prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study comparing rhBSSL (recombinant human Bile Salt Stimulated Lipase) and placebo added to infant formula during one week of treatment in preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • The blood test for lipase is most often used, along with an amylase test , to help diagnose and monitor acute pancreatitis. (labcorp.com)
  • In acute pancreatitis, lipase levels are frequently very high, often 5 to 10 times higher than the highest reference value (often called the upper limit of normal). (labcorp.com)
  • Lipase concentrations typically rise within 4 to 8 hours of an acute pancreatic attack and remain elevated for up to 7 to 14 days. (labcorp.com)
  • Lipase levels cannot be used to determine the severity of an acute pancreatic attack. (labcorp.com)
  • When acute pancreatitis occurs, lipase levels usually rise in about the same time as blood amylase concentrations , about 4-8 hours, but lipase levels will remain elevated longer than amylase levels. (labcorp.com)
  • Lipase testing is thought to be more reliable than amylase testing for the initial diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and is also more sensitive to detecting acute pancreatitis caused by alcohol consumption. (labcorp.com)
  • Repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis may lead to chronic pancreatitis, in which lipase levels may chronically be high. (livestrong.com)
  • Thus, through measurement of serum concentration of pancreatic lipase, acute pancreatitis can be diagnosed. (wikipedia.org)
  • lingual
  • However, due to the unique characteristics of lingual lipase, including a pH optimum 4.5-5.4 and its ability to catalyze reactions without bile salts, the lipolytic activity continues through to the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme release is signaled by autonomic nervous system after ingestion, at which time the serous glands under the circumvallate and foliate lingual papillae on the surface of the tongue secrete lingual lipase to the grooves of the circumvallate and foliate papillae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proposed mechanism of lingual lipase preferentially cleaving short and medium chain triacylglycerols provides a means for absorption without the need for micelle formation and chylomicrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • absorption
  • Fungi and bacteria may secrete lipases to facilitate nutrient absorption from the external medium (or in examples of pathogenic microbes, to promote invasion of a new host). (wikipedia.org)
  • lipolytic
  • In particular, Candida albicans has a large number of different lipases, possibly reflecting broad-lipolytic activity, which may contribute to the persistence and virulence of C. albicans in human tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neonates, acidic lipases are much more important, providing up to 50% of total lipolytic activity. (wikipedia.org)