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  • polymer
  • In a cover article published in Green Chemistry, the research team describes a process that ultimately transforms the lignin byproduct into a thermoplastic - a polymer that becomes pliable above a specific temperature. (innovations-report.com)
  • It is expected that chitin/lignin materials will find a wide range of applications (biosorbents, polymer fillers, and electrochemical sensors), as they combine the unique properties of chitin with the specific structural features of lignin to provide a multifunctional material. (hindawi.com)
  • The units resulting from the monolignols, when incorporated into the lignin polymer, are called guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p -hydroxyphenyl (H) units ( Figs. 1 and 2 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Lignin is one of the important classes of complex organic polymer which is found in cell walls, fibers and vessels which create wood and the lignified elements of plants. (sbwire.com)
  • The principal direction of investigation of uses for lignin derivatives has been in the polymer field, lignins being high molecular weight compounds formed by the biosynthetic polymerization of certain closely related phenylpropenol precursors. (google.com)
  • During pulping the lignin polymers are broken down to provide the said lignin derivatives which are by nature degradation products comprising lignin polymer fragments incorporating phenyl propane units which may present reactive sites through which re-polymerization reactions can occur. (google.com)
  • Lignin is a natural polymer, but is available in modified forms as industrial side-streams. (europa.eu)
  • The global lignin market is prophesied to draw a large number of end users due to various applications and key properties of the plant-derived polymer. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Lignin is highly resistant to biodegradation and only higher fungi and some bacteria are capable of degrading the polymer via an oxidative process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complicated structure of the lignin polymer and major difficulties in analysis are responsible for the relatively slow progress Lignin is found to be degraded by an enzyme lignin peroxidases produced by some fungi like Phanerochaete chrysosporium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism by which lignin peroxidase (Lip) interacts with the lignin polymer involves Veratryl alcohol (Valc). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellulose
  • The brown rots evolved later from a white rot ancestry and, because they circumvent the lignin and go straight for the hemicellulose and cellulose, they are considered more efficient and is probably why they have been able to dominate boreal forests in more recent times. (redorbit.com)
  • The analyses of the 48.2-million nucleotide genome of S. lacrymans not only allowed the team to compare the gene families involved in the mechanisms by which brown rot break down cellulose and white rot fungi break down both cellulose and lignin, but also how these processes differ within each category. (redorbit.com)
  • The brown rot fungi have somehow circumvented that step to more efficiently get at the cellulose instead of blasting lignin, and it has evolved multiple times in different white rot lineages. (redorbit.com)
  • Lignin-based fibers were produced by electrospinning aqueous dispersions of lignin, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). (usda.gov)
  • The three typical usages of lignin, the second most abundant biological material after cellulose, could be as an additive, a dispersant, and a binder. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The brown-rot fungi, which are able to colonize wood by degrading cellulose, are only able to partially degrade lignin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells then go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant-derived cellulose is usually found in a mixture with hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other substances, while bacterial cellulose is quite pure, has a much higher water content and higher tensile strength due to higher chain lengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytoplankton are mostly made up of lignin and cellulose, which are broken down by enzymes present in organisms such as P. chrysosprium, known as white-rot. (wikipedia.org)
  • monolignols
  • The main building blocks of lignin are the hydroxycinnamyl alcohols (or monolignols) coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, with typically minor amounts of p -coumaryl alcohol ( Fig. 1 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Banyak rumput kebanyakannya G, sementara beberapa tapak tangan telah terutamanya S. Semua lignins mengandungi sejumlah kecil yang tidak lengkap atau diubah suai monolignols, dan lain-lain monomer menonjol di non-woody tumbuh-tumbuhan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin biosintesis (Angka 4) bermula di cytosol dengan sintesis terglikosilat monolignols dari asam amino phenylalanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This phytochemical is one of the monolignols, which are precursor to lignin or lignans. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymatic
  • The terms ligninases and lignases are older names for the same class, but the name "lignin-modifying enzymes" is now preferred, given that these enzymes are not hydrolytic but rather oxidative (electron withdrawing) by their enzymatic mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes have been used in the refinement of poplar as lignin inhibits the enzymatic hydrolysis of treated poplar and Lignin-modifying enzymes can efficiently degrade the lignin thus fixing this problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • From a chemical point of view, the parent lignin is an amorphous, polyphenolic material arising from enzyme-mediated dehydrogenative polymerization of three phenylpropanoid monomers: p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohols [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • composition
  • Due to the significance of lignin in several agricultural disciplines, the modification of lignin content and composition by breeding is becoming increasingly important. (hindawi.com)
  • Membrane separation methodologies have also been tested and the lignin fractions analysed in terms of yield, composition and structural features. (europa.eu)
  • CCR also plays a role in determining lignin composition by regulating levels of the different monomers according to its specific activity toward particular cinnamoyl-CoA's. (wikipedia.org)
  • guaiacyl
  • Ini lignols dimasukkan ke lignin dalam bentuk phenyl-propanoids p -hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), dan syringyl (S), masing-masing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the lignin in the tracheid and fiber tracheid walls was originally rich in syringyl units, suggesting that changes in the anatomical and chemical characteristics of secondary xylem due to reaction wood formation might relate to the ratio of the syringyl to guaiacyl units in lignin in the cell walls which function for mechanical support. (springer.com)
  • Yoshizawa N, Watanabe N, Yokota S, Idei T (1993) Distribution of guaiacyl and syringyl lignins in normal and compression wood of Buxus microphylla var. (springer.com)
  • 2016
  • Aiso H, Ishiguri F, Ohkubo T, Yokota S (2016) Cell morphology and lignin distribution of reaction wood in Tetracentron sinense . (springer.com)
  • Rinaldi R, Jastrzebski R, Clough MT et al (2016) Paving the way for lignin valorisation: recent advances in bioengineering, biorefining and catalysis. (springer.com)
  • fungi
  • Part of that is the machinery to break down wood became simpler since brown rot fungi are not breaking down lignin. (redorbit.com)
  • Lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) are various types of enzymes produced by fungi and bacteria that catalyze the breakdown of lignin, a biopolymer commonly found in the cell walls of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laccases, which are multicopper oxidases, are another class of enzymes found in both bacteria and fungi which have significant lignin-degrading properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • additive
  • Lignin can also serve as an additive to synthetic polymers, giving them distinctive and unique properties [ 14 , 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • synthesis
  • Our work addresses a pathway to utilize lignin as a sustainable, renewable resource material for synthesis of thermoplastics that are recyclable," said Naskar, a member of the Department of Energy laboratory's Material Science and Technology Division. (innovations-report.com)
  • This is important for evaluating the utility of the materials and indirectly confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method of synthesis of chitin/lignin products. (hindawi.com)
  • fractionation
  • Using fractionation methods for separating lignin, they were able to recover lignin fractions with equal properties from different starting lignin materials and characterise them. (europa.eu)
  • fibers
  • The molecular weight distribution of the lignin and the blends are characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The effect of pH (0.3, 0.65 and 1), ex situ furfural, and curing conditions on the tensile properties of adhesive reinforced glass fibers is determined and compared to the reinforcement level of commercially available PF resin. (mdpi.com)
  • A ternary lignin-PVA-water phase diagram was constructed as a tool to rationalize the effect of mixing ratios on the dispersion electrospinability and morphology of the resulting fibers. (usda.gov)
  • Low cost and availability of lignin make it attractive precursor for preparation of a range of carbon materials, including activated carbons, activated carbon fibers (CF), structural CF, graphitic carbons or carbon black that could be used for environmental protection, as catalysts, in energy storage applications or as reinforcing components in advanced composite materials. (springer.com)
  • Li Q, Xie S, Serem WK et al (2017) Quality carbon fibers from fractionated lignin. (springer.com)
  • residue
  • Using plants and trees to make products such as paper or ethanol leaves behind a residue called lignin, a component of plant cell walls. (phys.org)
  • The dry matter content of lignins is the residue after drying at specified conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Lignin from crop residues plays an important role in the soil organic carbon cycling, as it constitutes a recalcitrant carbon pool affecting nutrient mineralization and carbon sequestration. (hindawi.com)
  • Alternatively, technical lignin could be used for production of carbon adsorbents, which have very high surface areas and pore volumes comparable to the best commercial activated carbons. (springer.com)
  • Suhas Carrott PJM, Ribeiro Carrott MML (2007) Lignin-from natural adsorbent to activated carbon: a review. (springer.com)
  • Mainka H, Täger O, Körner E et al (2015) Lignin-an alternative precursor for sustainable and cost-effective automotive carbon fiber. (springer.com)
  • Chatterjee S, Saito T (2015) Lignin-derived advanced carbon materials. (springer.com)
  • processes
  • What we have right now with current bioconversion processes often resembles a white rot approach," he said, "attacking lignin to get at carbohydrates and then converting them to fuels, chemicals or paper. (redorbit.com)
  • Lignin from various pulping processes has been shown to be applicable in electrochemical sensors owing to its residual quinone moieties, which are redox and thus electro-active [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been proposed to utilize the lignin derivatives contained in black liquors obtained from the pulping of hardwoods and softwoods both by the sulphite and alkali pulping processes, but as yet no major commercial use of the waste products has transpired. (google.com)
  • Apart from industrial feasibility, lignin materials enhance sustainable processes by reducing greenhouse gas emissions as they reduce our dependency on fossil-based materials,″ explains project coordinator Christine Hagström-Näsi. (europa.eu)
  • It is important to note that sulfur bearing lignins are commercialized whereas sulfur-free lignins are not because of lack of industrial processes. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • pulp
  • Turning lignin, a plant's structural "glue" and a byproduct of the paper and pulp industry, into something considerably more valuable is driving a research effort headed by Amit Naskar of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (innovations-report.com)
  • Instead of using nearly 50 million tons of lignin byproduct produced annually as a low-cost fuel to power paper and pulp mills, the material can be transformed into a lignin-derived high-value plastic. (innovations-report.com)
  • Lignin-modifying enzymes have been actively used in the paper and pulp industry for the last decade. (wikipedia.org)
  • derivatives
  • In some cases the black liquor containing the lignin derivatives and spent pulping chemical is simply discarded into rivers and the sea causing a pollution problem. (google.com)
  • Colour
  • Observations included no G-layer formation, significant decreases in vessel frequency, and altered MFA, and visible-light absorbance after lignin colour reactions in tracheid and fiber tracheid walls on the upper side in almost all samples. (springer.com)
  • secondary walls
  • Cell morphology, microfibril angle (MFA) of the S 2 layer and lignin distribution in secondary walls of tracheary elements, and lignin content were examined on three branches. (springer.com)
  • structures
  • Phys.org)-Lignin is an important component of the cell wall in plant cells and accounts for rigid structures, such as tree bark. (phys.org)
  • walls
  • On the other hand, reaction wood showed decrease in the lignin concentration in the fiber tracheid walls compared to the tracheid walls. (springer.com)
  • 2017
  • Graichen FHM, Grigsby WJ, Hill SJ et al (2017) Yes, we can make money out of lignin and other bio-based resources. (springer.com)
  • catalysis
  • A large number of natural products in plants, e.g. lignins, are generated via catalysis by caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • agricultural
  • Lignin is a plant component with important implications for various agricultural disciplines. (hindawi.com)
  • However, breeding goals must be defined considering the conflicting role of lignin in different agricultural disciplines. (hindawi.com)
  • chemical
  • Researchers accomplished this by reconstructing larger lignin molecules either through a chemical reaction with formaldehyde or by washing with methanol. (innovations-report.com)
  • Crosslinking involves building large lignin molecules by combining smaller molecules where formaldehyde helps to bridge the smaller units by chemical bonding. (innovations-report.com)
  • European researchers proposed to use lignin, a structural component of many plants and algae, as an alternative raw material in chemical production. (europa.eu)
  • Gosselink RJA (2011) Lignin as a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry. (springer.com)
  • extract
  • Lignin recovered from the hot-water extract of sugar maple ( Acer saccharum ) is used in this study to synthesize adhesive blends to replace phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin. (mdpi.com)
  • molecules
  • Lignin is a bulky chain of molecules found in wood and is usually discarded during biofuel production. (phys.org)
  • Here, however, we attempted to reconstruct larger lignin molecules by a simple crosslinking chemistry and then used it as a substitute for rigid phase in a formulation that behaves like crosslinked rubbers that can also be processed like plastics," Naskar said. (innovations-report.com)
  • mainly
  • The thermal stability of the system was observed to increase owing to a strong interaction of the lignin-PVA matrix with the dispersed CNCs, mainly via hydrogen bonding, as observed in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. (usda.gov)
  • content
  • Untreated lignin is characterized by lignin content and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. (mdpi.com)
  • The lignin content can be defined as the sum of the amount of acid-insoluble matter and acid-soluble matter, absorbing at 205 nm, after sulphuric acid hydrolysis during specified conditions, as determined by gravimetry and spectrophotometry, in milligrams per gram. (wikipedia.org)