• tumor
  • however, use of these drugs is often associated with patient toxicity and poor tumor delivery. (hindawi.com)
  • Often, a large percentage of cytotoxic drug administered to the patient does not reach the tumor environment but rather is distributed throughout the body, resulting in the many toxic effects associated with chemotherapy and a narrowing of the drug's therapeutic window. (hindawi.com)
  • The EPR effect is a consequence of the disorganized nature of the tumor vasculature, which results in increased permeability of polymer therapeutics and drug retention at the tumor site. (hindawi.com)
  • Both telomerase inhibitors and telomere interactive molecules have shown stand-alone antitumor activity at nontoxic doses against a variety of human tumor xenografts in mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded OA02-NPs exhibited superior antitumor efficacy and lower systemic toxicity profile in nude mice bearing SKOV-3 tumor xenografts, when compared with equivalent doses of nontargeted PTX-NPs as well as clinical paclitaxel formulation (Taxol). (aacrjournals.org)
  • IG-105 showed a potent activity against human leukemia and solid tumors in breast, liver, prostate, lung, skin, colon, and pancreas with IC 50 values between 0.012 and 0.298 μmol/L. It was also active in drug-resistant tumor cells and not a P-glycoprotein substrate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After a series of design, synthesis, and biological testing, we have identified a new tubulin ligand of N -(2,6-dimethoxypyridine-3-yl)-9-methylcarbazole-3-sulfonamide (IG-105), which showed a potent anticancer activity in a variety of human tumor cells in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Proteins
  • This technique has been applied to measuring the interactions of antigens and antibodies, enzymes and substrates, membranes and ligands, and fluorescent cofactors and proteins. (google.com.au)
  • This study is an excellent example of the use of QSAR and structure-based design to aid the identification of putative ligand binding sites on proteins. (omicsonline.org)
  • The foundations for which ligand binding assay have been built are a result of Karl Landsteiner, in 1945, and his work on immunization of animals through the production of antibodies for certain proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea that the effect of a drug in the human body is mediated by specific interactions of the drug molecule with biological macromolecules, (proteins or nucleic acids in most cases) led scientists to the conclusion that individual chemicals are required for the biological activity of the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • However, the more extensive use of chemotherapeutic drugs such as paclitaxel is often limited by its severe side effects, including hypersensitivity reactions, myelosuppression, and neurotoxicity, which may be attributed to their nonspecific systemic organ distribution and inadequate intratumor concentrations, resulting in suboptimal efficacy ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Combination of IG-105 with known anticancer drugs largely improved the therapeutic efficacy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hits from these screens are then tested in cells and then in animals for efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern drug discovery involves the identification of screening hits, medicinal chemistry and optimization of those hits to increase the affinity, selectivity (to reduce the potential of side effects), efficacy/potency, metabolic stability (to increase the half-life), and oral bioavailability. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • Polymeric micelles represent one of the most promising nanocarriers due to their unique core-shell structure formed by amphiphilic block copolymers, which could facilitate the solublization of poorly soluble drugs and protect the drugs from degradation and metabolism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • hormonal
  • Importantly, the use of drugs (whether chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or targeted therapy) constitutes systemic therapy for cancer in that they are introduced into the blood stream and are therefore in principle able to address cancer at any anatomic location in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • however, stand-alone chemotherapy drugs suffer from numerous problems including rapid in vivo metabolism and/or excretion, inability to access and penetrate cancer cells, and nonspecific uptake by healthy cells and tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • molecular
  • In the intensifying efforts to discover new, hopefully more therapeutically efficacious HDAC inhibitors, molecular modeling-based rational drug design has played an important role in identifying potential inhibitors that vary in molecular structures and properties. (mdpi.com)
  • Our work focuses on the discovery of small molecular weight tubulin ligands. (aacrjournals.org)
  • bound
  • Some newer types are called "mix-and-measure" assays because they do not require separation of bound ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this technique, drug particles are enveloped in a plasma membrane-bound vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Platinum nanoparticle seeds were prepared by the decomposition of Pt2(dba)3 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) under carbon monoxide (CO). These conditions produced Pt nanoparticles with weakly bound THF and CO ligands and an approximate diameter on 1.2 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • The whole-mount Casp3 assay is optimized for analysis of fixed embryos between the 4-cell stage and 32 hr-post-fertilization and is useful for a number of applications, including analysis of zebrafish mutants and morphants, overexpression of mutant and wild-type mRNAs, and exposure to chemicals. (jove.com)
  • Myeloma bone disease is due to the overexpression of receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B ligand (RANKL) by bone marrow stroma. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • High resolution screening of plant natural product extracts for estrogen receptor alpha and beta binding activity using an online HPLC-MS biochemical detection system. (springer.com)
  • A detection method is used to determine the presence and extent of the ligand-receptor complexes formed, and this is usually determined electrochemically or through a fluorescence detection method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radioligands are used to measure the ligand binding to receptors and should ideally have high affinity, low non-specific binding, high specific activity to detect low receptor densities, and receptor specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the natural high affinity of folate for the folate receptor protein (FR), which is commonly expressed on the surface of many human cancers, folate-drug conjugates also bind tightly to the FR and trigger cellular uptake via endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from its cofactor role for intracellular enzymes, FA also displays high affinity for the folate receptor (FR), a glycosylphosphatidyinositol-linked protein that captures its ligands from the extracellular milieu and transports them inside the cell via a non-destructive, recycling endosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this ligand, known to bind the FR, is added in excess of the folate conjugate, it outcompetes the conjugate, indicating that the folate conjugate specifically binds the FR, and not other receptors, in the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRAIL
  • We describe here the development of a novel 384-well high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy for identifying potential TRAIL-sensitizing agents that act solely in a caspase-8 dependent manner. (jove.com)
  • novel
  • To address this problem, a novel triblock copolymer has been developed to encapsulate several different hydrophobic drugs into stable polymer micelles. (hindawi.com)
  • We have recently developed a series of novel linear dendritic block copolymers (telodendrimers) comprising polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dendritic cholic acids (CA), which can encapsulate high concentrations of hydrophobic drugs such as paclitaxel and self-assemble to form stable core-shell micelles under aqueous condition ( 6-12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is highly desirable to discover novel tubulin ligands that could avoid or minimize these problems. (aacrjournals.org)
  • nanoparticles
  • Micellar nanoparticles based on linear polyethylene glycol (PEG) block dendritic cholic acids (CA) copolymers (telodendrimers), for the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of cancers, are reported. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The representative PEG 5k -CA 8 micellar nanoparticles possess the ideal properties for drug delivery, including high drug loading capacity, optimal particle size (20-60 nm), outstanding stability (more than 6 months at 4ºC), and sustainable drug release profile. (aacrjournals.org)
  • reported the influence of ligand and solvent effects on the size and shape of platinum nanoparticles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hexadecylamine (HDA) was added to the purified reaction mixture and allowed to displace the THF and CO ligands over the course of approximately seven days, producing monodispersed spherical crystalline Pt nanoparticles with an average diameter of 2.1 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the same procedure was followed using a stronger capping agent such as triphenyl phosphine or octanethiol, the nanoparticles remained spherical, suggesting that the HDA ligand affects particle shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research showed that alkylamine can coordinate with Pt2+ ion and form tetrakis(amine)platinate precursor and replace the original acac− ligand in Pt(acac)2, and oleic acid can further exchange with acac− and tune the formation kinetics of platinum nanoparticles. (wikipedia.org)
  • acids
  • Fuzzati N, Pace R, Villa E. A simple HPLC-UV method for the assay of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba extracts. (springer.com)
  • Taxol
  • Agents acting at the process, such as Vinca alkaloids and Taxol analogues, have been used as first-line drugs for cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The representative drugs in clinic of such mode of action are Vinca alkaloids (such as vincristine) that inhibit microtubule assembly and Taxol analogues (such as paclitaxel) that disrupt the microtubules disassembly ( 10 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • reliability
  • We have also found the Casp3 assay to be superior to analysis of apoptotic cells by the whole-mount TUNEL assay in regard to cost and reliability. (jove.com)
  • Essential aspects of binding assays include, but are not limited to, the concentration level of reactants or products (see radioactive section), maintaining the equilibrium constant of reactants throughout the assay, and the reliability and validity of linked reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • mTOR inhibitors are a class of drugs that inhibit the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that belongs to the family of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) related kinases (PIKKs). (wikipedia.org)
  • 20 crystal structures with and without ligands have been published and in 2010 nearly a dozen small molecule c-Met inhibitors have been tested clinically. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanistic
  • From a mechanistic perspective, the FR functions to concentrate exogenous ligands (e.g. folates and folate-drug conjugates) into the cell cytosol by endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The effects of valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity, on mononuclear cells isolated from 40 CLL patients were evaluated. (uliege.be)
  • Nuclease activity via self-activation and anticancer activity of mononuclear copper (II) complex: Role of tertiary butyl group in the ligand frame, Manuscript under revision in Inorganic Chemistry 2012 , 51, 3343-45. (uta.edu)
  • In addition, false positive hits can easily be "weeded out" in this assay due to their activity in cells lacking caspase-8-inducible activity. (jove.com)
  • There are two common strategies that are adopted for this type of experiment: Increasing the amount of radioligand added while maintaining both the constant specific activity and constant concentration of radioligand, or decreasing the specific activity of the radioligand due to the addition of an unlabeled ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligand specific recruitment of coregulators might be crucial for the agonist or antagonist activity of AR ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • An ideal delivery system should be composed of biocompatible and biodegradable materials, reproducibly assemble into the desired size range, encapsulate a wide range of drugs and drug classes, maintain particle size in biological media, have the ability to attach cell-specific targeting groups, and release the therapeutic at the site of disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite advances in technology and understanding of biological systems, drug discovery is still a lengthy, "expensive, difficult, and inefficient process" with low rate of new therapeutic discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • competitive
  • Through the development of RIA technology, researchers have been able to move beyond the use of radioactivity, and instead, use liquid- and solid-phase, competitive, and immunoradiometric assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activator
  • Objective: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is as a potential drug target for cancer and inflammation. (omicsonline.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • These prototype trials will be extremely informative in determining the role of the telomerase/telomere pathway in clinical oncology and, moreover, whether drugs targeting the unlimited replicative potential of cancer will find a place in cancer chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the effect on immune cells (especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self (so-called autoimmunity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction chemotherapy is the first line treatment of cancer with a chemotherapeutic drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or hyperthermia therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intensification chemotherapy is identical to consolidation chemotherapy but a different drug than the induction chemotherapy is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combination chemotherapy involves treating a patient with a number of different drugs simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Once a compound that fulfills all of these requirements has been identified, it will begin the process of drug development prior to clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug requires very expensive Phase I, II and III clinical trials, and most of them fail. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of vitamin-mediated drug targeting in plants led to the hypothesis that folate-targeted therapies could be of clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Such advances provide researchers with the ability not only to quantify hormones and hormone receptors, but also to contribute important pharmacological information in drug development and treatment plans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989 the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved it for use the treatment of prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crizotinib received accelerated approval for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is ALK-positive as detected by a test approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • We have illustrated the molecule mode of action of this compound and the mechanism of why IG-105 is active against drug-resistant cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Compared to acridine orange staining, which can identify apoptotic cells in live embryos in a matter of hours, Casp3 and TUNEL assays take considerably longer to complete (2-4 days). (jove.com)
  • cancer
  • Cancer vaccines are a promising way to outsmart cancer, especially when combined with other immune-stimulating drugs. (wn.com)
  • cell
  • Afterwards, the empty FR returns to the cell surface where it can participate in another round of ligand-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • libraries
  • This screen was performed in the 384-well format, but could easily be further miniaturized, allows easy identification of artifactual false positives, and is highly scalable to accommodate diverse libraries. (jove.com)
  • Screening of chemical libraries for AR blockers led to the discovery of the first antiandrogen, cyproterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Targeted drug therapy is advantageous because it deposits the drug at the specific location where it can be most useful in treating the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • discovery
  • Modern drug discovery is thus usually a capital-intensive process that involves large investments by pharmaceutical industry corporations as well as national governments (who provide grants and loan guarantees). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug discovery is done by pharmaceutical companies, with research assistance from universities. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Discovering drugs that may be a commercial success, or a public health success, involves a complex interaction between investors, industry, academia, patent laws, regulatory exclusivity, marketing and the need to balance secrecy with communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • approaches
  • Additional translational approaches, such as targeting telomeres using G-quadruplex ligands, should result in antitelomere agents, such as RHPS4, entering the clinic in the near future. (aacrjournals.org)
  • target
  • In the 1990s there was a dramatic change in this field due to studies on the mechanism of action of rapamycin and the identification of the drug target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically
  • Specifically, despite the human body's endogenous receptors, hormones, and other neurotransmitters, pharmacologists utilize assays in order to create drugs that are selective, or mimic, the endogenously found cellular components. (wikipedia.org)