• systolic
  • Red flags that increase the likelihood of a pathologic murmur include a holosystolic or diastolic murmur, grade 3 or higher murmur, harsh quality, an abnormal S 2 , maximal murmur intensity at the upper left sternal border, a systolic click, or increased intensity when the patient stands. (aafp.org)
  • In the case of chronic aortic insufficiency with resultant cardiac remodeling, heart failure will develop, and it is possible to see systolic pressures diminish. (wikipedia.org)
  • ischemic
  • The purpose of this clinical trial is to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of left ventricular endocardial injection of guided bone marrow-derived cardiopoietic cells (C-Cure) in the setting of chronic heart failure secondary to ischemic cardiomyopathy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • open mitral
  • Santa Clara, CA) has been shown to be noninferior to open mitral repair in the treatment of selected patients with predominantly degenerative MR. However, the effectiveness and durability of the MitraClip among patients with functional MR is probably limited. (acc.org)
  • This late flow across the open mitral valve is seen on doppler echocardiography of the mitral valve as the A wave. (wikipedia.org)
  • congenital
  • A quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital heart defect characterized by the presence of four cusps, instead of the usual three found normally in the aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, insufficiency may be the result of carcinoid syndrome, inflammatory processes such a rheumatoid disease or endocarditis, or congenital malformations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common congenital abnormality of the heart is the bicuspid aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Turner syndrome, a congenital condition that affects females, can often have a bicuspid aortic valve as one of its symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore, duplication or deletion of the region encompassing Tbx2 can cause various congenital defects, including: microcephaly, various ventricular-septal defects, and skeletal abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • outflow obstruction
  • Both standing and Valsalva maneuver will decrease venous return and subsequently decrease left ventricular filling, resulting in an increase in the loudness of the murmur of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, since outflow obstruction is increased by decreasing preload. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is typically the result of aging, occurring in 2.8% of the population over 75 years of age and represents the most common cause of outflow obstruction in the left ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • diastolic
  • Since sarcomere length cannot be determined in the intact heart, other indices of preload such as ventricular end-diastolic volume or pressure are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preload can be calculated as preload = LVEDP × LVEDR 2 h {\displaystyle {\text{preload}}={\frac {{\text{LVEDP}}\times {\text{LVEDR}}}{2{\text{h}}}}} where LVEDP = left ventricular end-diastolic pressure LVEDR = left ventricular end-diastolic radius (at midpoint of ventricle) h = thickness of ventricle Stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood ejected by the right/left ventricle in a single contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgical
  • Performance was assessed using need for mitral valve surgical intervention, device and/or procedure-related death, and echocardiographic parameters of LV reverse remodeling during 6-month follow-up. (acc.org)
  • Leaking valves can be corrected by mitral valve annuloplasty, a common surgical procedure that aims at restoring proper leaflet adjustment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of damaged valves may involve medication alone, but often involves surgical valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve). (wikipedia.org)
  • More appreciable insufficiency it is typically the result of damage to the valve due to cardiac catheterization, aortic balloon pump insertion, or other surgical manipulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aortic valve replacement is a surgical procedure in which a patient's aortic valve is replaced by a different valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood flows
  • Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Murmurs may also be the result of various problems, such as narrowing or leaking of valves, or the presence of abnormal passages through which blood flows in or near the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaflets of the valve
  • The chordae tendineae act a bit like the strings on a parachute, and allow the leaflets of the valve to balloon up into the atria slightly, but not so much as to evert the cusp edges and allow back flow of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases vegetations form on the mitral leaflets as a result of endocarditis, an inflammation of the heart tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two basic types of artificial heart valve, mechanical valves and tissue valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue heart valves are usually made from animal tissues, either animal heart valve tissue or animal pericardial tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are alternatives to animal tissue valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The durability of homograft valves is probably the same as for porcine tissue valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • p21CIP1 is necessary for tissue senescence, and when compromised, leaves the tissue vulnerable to tumor-promoting signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • heart valves
  • and a thorough cardiovascular examination, including features of the murmur, assessment of peripheral perfusion, and auscultation over the heart valves. (aafp.org)
  • Specifically, the sounds reflect the turbulence created when the heart valves snap shut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal heart sounds are associated with heart valves closing: The first heart sound, or S1, forms the "lub" of "lub-dub" and is composed of components M1 (mitral valve closure) and T1 (tricuspid valve closure). (wikipedia.org)
  • flows
  • Because the subepicardial region is more depolarized (more positive) compared to the endomyocardial cells the current in the left ventricle flows toward the endomyocardial cells. (wikipedia.org)