• atrial
  • LV geometry provides a summary statistic for the degree and duration of increased cardiac work load (7) , just as left atrial volume reflects LV filling pressure (8) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • 2. The system of claim 1 , wherein the controller is programmed to measure an interval between a right atrial sense or pace and a left atrial sense as the intrinsic conduction parameter. (google.com)
  • The spironolactone group also exhibited reduction in posterior wall thickness ( P =0.04) and a trend to reduced left atrial area ( P =0.09). (ahajournals.org)
  • Data from the MONICA (Monitoring of Trends and Determinations in Cardiovascular Disease) registry have shown that hypertension and obesity-both associated with type 2 diabetes and arterial stiffness-independently predicted left atrial (LA) enlargement, a sensitive indicator of an elevated LV preload ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The upward deflections are the "a" (atrial contraction), "c" (ventricular contraction and resulting bulging of tricuspid into the right atrium during isovolumetric systole) and "v" = venous filling The downward deflections of the wave are the "x" (the atrium relaxes and the tricuspid valve moves downward) and the "y" descent (filling of ventricle after tricuspid opening). (wikipedia.org)
  • The " x " descent follows the 'a' wave and corresponds to atrial relaXation and rapid atrial filling due to low pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "hepatojugular reflux" was previously used as it was thought that compression of the liver resulted in "reflux" of blood out the hepatic sinusoids into the great veins[disambiguation needed], thereby elevating right atrial pressure and visualized as jugular venous distention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who develop pacemaker syndrome may require adjustment of the pacemaker, or fitting of another lead to better coordinate the timing of atrial and ventricular contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with noncompliant ventricles and diastolic dysfunction are particularly sensitive to loss of atrial contribution to ventricular filling, where that highly increase the chance of developing the syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loss of physiologic timing of atrial and ventricular contractions, or sometimes called AV dyssynchrony, leads to different mechanisms of symptoms production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of the arterial switch is historically preceded by two atrial switch methods: the Senning and Mustard procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular
  • 1 , 2 Thus, high salt intake harms the cardiovascular system by raising BP and might be directly responsible for increasing left ventricular (LV) mass, as suggested in clinical and experimental studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, despite the tiny amount of LV mass modification for the remarkable changes in electrolyte excretion, the statistical evidence that dietary electrolyte intake is a pressure-independent correlate of LV mass might have important pathophysiological and clinical relevance, because LV mass might mediate, at least in part, the increased pressure-independent cardiovascular risk related to excessive Na + /low K + intake. (ahajournals.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis via pressure, volume, and chemoreceptor signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • 1 Poorly controlled blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for CV events, also remains 1 of the 2 most common causes of chronic kidney disease and contributes to development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). (ahajournals.org)
  • These mutations affect blood pressure by altering renal salt handling. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an independent predisposing factor for heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, renal disease, and peripheral arterial disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Subjects were from a cohort study of blood pressure regulation where subjects were initially recruited from their schools and, more recently, through advertisements posted on the university campus. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 , 2 Accordingly, both the 24-hour urinary Na + and Na + /K + excretion, which reflect the dietary amount of these 2 electrolytes, have been shown to have significant direct relations with blood pressure (BP). (ahajournals.org)
  • Even a simple measurement such as blood pressure (BP) contains much more information than just providing a measure of vascular tone. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Nitric oxide dilates blood vessels, raising blood supply and lowering blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone plays a key role in blood pressure homeostasis, the regulation of circulating volume, and the maintenance of sodium-potassium balance. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 3 4 It is still controversial whether cardiac structural changes in the clinical setting are due to long-term elevations in blood pressure or are a manifestation of nonhemodynamic factors acting on the myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients presenting with low blood pressure or shock are commonly resuscitated with fluid loading, vasopressors and inotropes either as single therapy or in combination [ 9 , 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, blind manipulation of these determinants of blood pressure carries a risk of unphysiological restoration of blood pressure and CO, potentially harming the patient without treating the underlying cause. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The increase in strain was independent of changes in blood pressure with intervention. (ahajournals.org)
  • The increase in pulse pressure may result in increased damage to blood vessels in target organs such as the brain or kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulse amplitude may vary, and blood pressure may fluctuate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a hypertensive emergency, the blood pressure should be slowly lowered over a period of minutes to hours with an antihypertensive agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The former use of oral nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, has been strongly discouraged as it has led to excessive falls in blood pressure with serious and fatal consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, the term hypertensive emergency is also used as a generic term, comprising both hypertensive emergency, as a specific term for a serious and urgent condition of elevated blood pressure, and hypertensive urgency, as a specific term of a less serious and less urgent condition (the terminology hypertensive crisis is usually used in this sense). (wikipedia.org)
  • During a hypertensive emergency uncontrolled blood pressure leads to progressive or impending end-organ dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it is important to lower the blood pressure aggressively. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical citation needed] Extreme blood pressure can lead to problems in the eye, such as retinopathy or damage to the blood vessels in the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with blood pressures in this range may have no symptoms, but are more likely to report headaches (22% of cases) and dizziness than the general population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people with a hypertensive crisis are known to have elevated blood pressure, but additional triggers may have led to a sudden rise. (wikipedia.org)
  • A "hypertensive emergency" is diagnosed when there is evidence of direct damage to one or more organs as a result of severely elevated blood pressure greater than 180 systolic or 120 diastolic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these situations, rapid reduction of the blood pressure is mandated to stop ongoing organ damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast there is no evidence that blood pressure needs to be lowered rapidly in hypertensive urgencies where there is no evidence of target organ damage and over aggressive reduction of blood pressure is not without risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating, Committee (Dec 2003). (wikipedia.org)
  • A blood transfusion is necessary for the arterial switch because the HLM needs its "circulation" filled with blood and an infant does not have enough blood on their own to do this (in most cases, an adult would not require blood transfusion). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is greater similarity in blood pressure within families than between families, which indicates a form of inheritance, and this is not due to shared environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the aid of genetic analysis techniques, a statistically significant linkage of blood pressure to several chromosomal regions, including regions linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia, was found. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings suggest that there are many genetic loci, in the general population, each with small effects on blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertensive retinopathy is a condition characterized by a spectrum of retinal vascular signs in people with elevated blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retinal circulation undergoes a series of pathophysiological changes in response to elevated blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistently elevated blood pressure leads to intimal thickening, hyperplasia of the media wall, and hyaline degeneration in the subsequent, sclerotic, stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isosorbide mononitrate is a drug used principally in the treatment of angina pectoris and acts by dilating the blood vessels so as to reduce the blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bladders inflate as the G-force acting on the aircraft increase, constricting the wearer's arteries, hence increasing blood pressure and blood flow to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integral to the work leading to the development of the G suit was the perfection of vascular catheterization methods needed to understand the distribution of blood pressure and flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palpate radial or femoral arteries, feel for regular rhythm but alternating strong and weak pulses Use blood pressure cuff to confirm: Raise blood pressure cuff to over systolic level then, lower slowly towards the systolic level, if hearing alternating loud & soft korotkoff sounds, pulses alternans is indicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormalities
  • Taken together, these observations indicate that guidance is needed to properly assess BP in ESRD patients and that excess volume is key to the etiology associated with elevated BP and ventricular structure abnormalities in the ESRD patient. (ahajournals.org)
  • parameters
  • The addition of a calcium channel blocker of the verapamil type, such as gallopamil 75 mg, has been shown to further improve left ventricular functional parameters when given in combination with isosorbide mononitrate in a sustained-release formulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • HFNEF patients were shown to display combined stiffening of arteries and the LV, which was not ascribable to age, body weight, or arterial pressure ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The additional effect of isosorbide mononitrate was especially evident in patients whose portal pressure was not reduced by propranolol. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • CONCLUSIONS Both glucose status and arterial distensibility are independently associated with more severe LV diastolic dysfunction 8 years later and with deterioration of LV diastolic dysfunction. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Indicative of severe Left-sided heart failure D.H. Lawrence elegantly describes pulsus alternans in his novel Sons and Lovers: Then he felt her pulse. (wikipedia.org)
  • heart
  • The heart acceleration signal can be obtained from an single- or multiple-axis accelerometer and/or a pressure sensor deployed within or near the heart. (google.com.au)
  • Impella is a family of medical devices used for temporary ventricular support device in people with depressed heart function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ventricular function in surgery for congenital Heart Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • medical fitness of a person to function safely underwater under pressure Fitness to dive, (also medical fitness to dive), is the medical and physical suitability of a diver to function safely in the underwater environment using underwater diving equipment and procedures. (wikipedia.org)