• brainstem
  • In addition, recent evidence has shown that sensory-processing nuclei in the brainstem, particularly the superior colliculus, have a direct BG connection through an input to the substantia nigra. (nih.gov)
  • sulcus
  • The middle temporal gyrus is supplied by all 4 temporal branches of the middle cerebral artery that emerge from the lateral sulcus 1,2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The inferior frontal gyrus makes up the lateral and inferior surface of the frontal lobe , and is separated from the middle frontal gyrus above by the inferior frontal sulcus . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Its inferior edge abuts the lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure), which gives off two branches that subdivide the inferior frontal gyrus into three parts. (radiopaedia.org)
  • It runs from the post-central sulcus towards the occipital pole, dividing the lateral parietal lobe into the superior and inferior parietal lobules. (radiopaedia.org)
  • pons
  • The abducens nucleus is a small nucleus situated at the upper part of the rhomboid fossa beneath the colliculus facialis within the pons. (radiopaedia.org)
  • It is the most medial of the nerves emerging immediately below the pons ( facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve lateral to it) at the pontomedullary junction into the prepontine cistern. (radiopaedia.org)
  • posterior
  • The forward-facing column is the anterior grey column, the rear-facing one is the posterior grey column and the interlinking one is the lateral grey column. (wikipedia.org)
  • amygdala
  • Location: The shell is the outer region of the nucleus accumbens, and - unlike the core - is considered to be part of the extended amygdala, located at its rostral pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • ️ Limbic system is composed of the the parahippocampal and cingulate gyri, the septal area, the hippocampal formation and the amygdala. (wordpress.com)
  • midbrain
  • The habenular nuclei (habenula is Latin for "little rein") acts as a regulator of key central nervous system neurotransmitters, connecting the forebrain and midbrain within the epithalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • By way of the fasciculus retroflexus (habenulointerpeduncular tract) it projects to the interpeduncular nucleus and other paramedian cell groups of the midbrain tegmentum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The visual system transmits visual information from the retina within the eyes to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe as well as the pretectal nuclei and superior colliculi of the midbrain. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The smaller fibres for the light reflex pass between the lateral and medial geniculate bodies to the midbrain. (radiopaedia.org)
  • pineal gland
  • ️ The epithalamus consists principally of the pineal gland that secretes melatonin and is involved with circadian rhythm and regulation of the onset of puberty and the habenular nuclei. (wordpress.com)
  • tract
  • The optic radiation (geniculocalcarine tract) is the white matter tract from the lateral geniculate body to the primary visual cortex. (radiopaedia.org)
  • brain
  • Resting state networks (RSNs) in humans is becoming a tool to investigate brain basal states in health and disease - . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is one of the four major dopamine pathways in the brain, and is particularly involved in the production of movement, as part of a system called the basal ganglia motor loop. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Although cells that respond to different aspects of reward such as anticipation, value, etc., are found throughout the brain, at the center of this network is the cortico-ventral basal ganglia (BG) circuit. (nih.gov)
  • occipital
  • It extends posteriorly from the temporal pole , blending into the parietal and occipital lobes with the limits defined by an arbitrary line, the lateral parietotemporal line 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • frontal
  • ️Premotor cortex lies immediately anterior to Primary motor cortex ( Brodmann's area 6 on the lateral surface of the frontal lobe. (wordpress.com)
  • The septal veins drain the corpus callosum and deep medullary frontal white matter. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Superior
  • Having entered the orbit through the superior orbital fissure within the tendinous ring (see Figure 3) it supplies the lateral rectus . (radiopaedia.org)
  • reward
  • citation needed] Recent exploration of the habenular nuclei has begun to associate the structure with an organism's current mood, feeling of motivation, and reward recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons in the lateral habenula are 'reward-negative' as they are activated by stimuli associated with unpleasant events, the absence of the reward or punishment especially when this is unpredictable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent demonstrations using fMRI and single unit electrophysiology have closely linked the function of the lateral habenula with reward processing, in particular with regard to encoding negative feedback or negative rewards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function: The shell of the nucleus accumbens is involved in the cognitive processing of reward, including subjective "liking" reactions to certain pleasurable stimuli, motivational salience, and positive reinforcement. (wikipedia.org)
  • the basal ganglia portion of the loop drives activity within the reward system. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • The lateral habenula functions to oppose the action of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus in the acquisition of avoidance responses but not the processing of avoidance later on when it is a memory, motivation or its execution. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Moreover, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has been proposed as a functional and neural extension of the SN, so it is another goal of this study to describe possible anatomical connections from the PPTg to PnC. (springer.com)
  • Nerve
  • Within the cavernous sinus the abducens nerve is located inferolateral to the internal carotid artery , medial to the lateral wall of the sinus. (radiopaedia.org)
  • region
  • Detailed examination of the region in the cat, however, suggested that the lateral part should be further divided into ten distinct subnuclei and the medial into five distinct subnuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • ️ The hypothalamus has important connections with the limbic system, a controlling influence on autonomic nervous system activity and a role in neuroendocrine function. (wordpress.com)