• viruses
  • Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected cell throughout the life of the host, yet at the same time must also be capable of avoiding elimination by the immune surveillance system especially must avoid being detected by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses have their lytic phase in mucoepithelial cells and are latent in neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • All families of bacterial viruses with circular (single-stranded or double-stranded) DNA genomes or replicating their genomes through a circular intermediate (e.g., tailed dsDNA viruses) have temperate members. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Unassigned Genus: Polemovirus Poinsettia latent virus Viruses in Polemovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, viruses that integrate into the host cell's genome can stay there as long as the cell lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other viruses that go latent, it does not typically cause symptoms while latent. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses have incorporated into the human genome in the distant past, and are now passed through reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Bromoviridae Genus: Bromovirus Broad bean mottle virus Brome mosaic virus Cassia yellow blotch virus Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus Melandrium yellow fleck virus Spring beauty latent virus Viruses in Bromovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Tombusviridae Genus: Aureusvirus Cucumber leaf spot virus Johnsongrass chlorotic stripe mosaic virus Maize white line mosaic virus Pothos latent virus Viruses in Aureusvirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Spherical geometries, and T=3 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • detectable
  • Following HSV1m5/Trex2 delivery with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, the target site was mutated in latent HSV genomes with no detectable cell toxicity. (jove.com)
  • Although most HIV-1 infected individuals have a detectable viral load and in the absence of treatment will eventually progress to AIDS, a small proportion (about 5%) retain high levels of CD4+ T cells (T helper cells) without antiretroviral therapy for more than 5 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICP4
  • Knipe developed a cotransfection method for marker rescue mapping of mutations and introduction of new sequences into the HSV genome and showed that the ICP4 gene mapped in the repeated sequences of the short component of the viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • latency
  • A remarkable fact concerning the latency of EBV is that different patterns of expression exist while it is latent, known as latency programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICP0
  • Barriers to viral replication induced by interferons can also be overcome by the action of ICP0. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICP0 interacts with coREST, dissociating HDAC1 from CoREST/NRSF in the HDAC/CoREST/NRSF complex and preventing the silencing of the HSV genome in non-neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • histones
  • LAT expression results in changes to Histones, thus converting portions of viral DNA into a non-productive form known as heterochromatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • When a (nonendogenous) retrovirus invades a cell, the RNA of the retrovirus is reverse-transcribed into DNA by reverse transcriptase, then inserted into the host genome by an integrase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A provirus does not directly make new DNA copies of itself while integrated into a host genome in this way. (wikipedia.org)
  • LAT regulates the viral genome and interferes with the normal activities of the infected host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The majority of gammaherpesviruses encode a specific protein that is critical for maintenance of the viral genome within latently infected cells termed the genome maintenance protein (GMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • This is often because long-lasting viral DNA in infected cells is not affected by current antivirals, providing a source for viral persistence and reactivation. (jove.com)
  • Li transfected its genome, or just the envelope gene, into human neural cultures derived from pluripotent stem cells. (alzforum.org)
  • Viral transformation is the change in growth, phenotype, or indefinite reproduction of cells caused by the introduction of inheritable material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike HSV 1 and 2, there has not been any LAT found in the VZV latent cells. (wikipedia.org)