• surgeons
  • Prior to Nezhat's innovation, surgeons performed laparoscopy while peering directly into the endoscope's eyepiece, a method which limited their ability to perform operations because it left only one hand free, limited their field of vision, and required them to hunch over and move around in awkward positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the early 2000s, many medical societies, such as American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists, Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, and SAGES, also began offering fellowships in advanced operative video-laparoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • laparotomy
  • Nezhat is best known for the surgical innovation referred to as video-laparoscopy or "operating off the monitor," a method now widely accepted but which was, until recently, considered a controversial and questionable departure from classical laparotomy or open surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Question
  • Even as late as the 2000s, there were many opponents to these techniques who continued to call into question the safety and necessity of video-laparoscopy, especially when used for more advanced laparoscopic techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • However, by approximately the mid-1990s it can be established that most of the initial misgivings about video-laparoscopy had subsided because by then the nation's most prominent academic medical schools in the U.S., such as Stanford University School of Medicine, had adopted this change and began teaching it as part of the standard medical school curriculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Populations on whom laparoscopies are now performed include infants, children, the elderly, the obese, and those with chronic disease states, such as cancer. (encyclopedia.com)