• carbonyl
  • The second is called "Cohen's parameter", c, and is the distance between the carbon atom of the carboxylate and the oxygen atom of the β-lactam carbonyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • The imine can be replaced by adding olefin to produce a cyclobutanone, carbonyl to produce a β-lactone, or carbodiimides to produce 4-imino β-lactams. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Bacteria often develop resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by synthesizing a β-lactamase, an enzyme that attacks the β-lactam ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a (carboxyethyl)arginine beta-lactam-synthase (EC 6.3.3.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-N2-(2-carboxyethyl)arginine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + deoxyamidinoproclavaminate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and L-N2-(2-carboxyethyl)arginine, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and deoxyamidinoproclavaminate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a 2-aminohexano-6-lactam racemase (EC 5.1.1.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-2-aminohexano-6-lactam ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-2-aminohexano-6-lactam Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-2-aminohexano-6-lactam, and one product, D-2-aminohexano-6-lactam. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-aminohexano-6-lactam racemase. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • 6 Of the three pharmacodynamic parameters described with antimicrobials, optimal efficacy with beta-lactams is achieved when free drug concentrations stay above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for an extended duration of the recommended dosing interval ( FIGURE 1 ). (uspharmacist.com)
  • chiral
  • Subsequent ring closure leads to the formation of the β-lactam and the regeneration of the chiral nucleophilic organocatalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • Inhibition of cross-linkage by β-lactams causes a build-up of peptidoglycan precursors, which triggers the digestion of existing peptidoglycan by autolytic hydrolases without the production of new peptidoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • A process for preparing N-substituted lactams, as well as pharmaceutical compositions containing these compounds as active component. (google.com)
  • Until 2003, when measured by sales, more than half of all commercially available antibiotics in use were β-lactam compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical
  • NYSE MKT: SYN), a clinical stage company focused on developing therapeutics to protect the gut microbiome while targeting pathogen specific diseases, announced positive topline results from the first Phase 2a study of SYN-004, the Company's candidate designed to protect the gut microbiome from the unintended effects of certain commonly used intravenous (IV) beta-lactam antibiotics for the prevention C. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is a list of common β-lactam antibiotics-both administered drugs and those not in clinical use-organized by structural class. (wikipedia.org)
  • extensively
  • Other beta-lactams have not been studied as extensively, since achievement of pharmacodynamic goals is likely ideal even with standard dosing. (uspharmacist.com)
  • mainly
  • At first, β-lactam antibiotics were mainly active only against Gram-positive bacteria, yet the recent development of broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics active against various Gram-negative organisms has increased their usefulness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketenes with strong electron-donating substituents mainly produce cis β-lactams, while ketenes with strong electron-withdrawing substituents generally produce trans β-lactams. (wikipedia.org)
  • attacks
  • The tertiary amine contained within the quinuclidine can act as a nucleophile that attacks the most electrophilic carbon of the ketene to promote the formation of β-lactams. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Sulfuric acid is the most commonly used acid for commercial lactam production due to its formation of an ammonium sulfate by-product when neutralized with ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Cation-π Control of Regiochemistry of Intramolecular Schmidt Reactions en Route to Bridged Bicyclic Lactams" (Communication). (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • The broad-spectrum beta-lactams cefepime, meropenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam are the agents most studied for this dosing strategy, as they have reliable activity against most gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (uspharmacist.com)
  • drugs
  • Because of the popularity of beta-lactam drugs, certain bacteria have been able to develop counter-measures to traditional drug therapies. (princeton.edu)
  • structure
  • citation needed] Antiproliferative agents that target tubulin with β-lactams in their structure have also been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • 11-13 Because most beta-lactams have high renal excretion and renal dysfunction prolongs drug elimination, prolonging drug infusion is unlikely to improve PTA in patients receiving these agents. (uspharmacist.com)
  • found
  • This strain is further increased by fusion to a second ring, as found in most β-lactam antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lactam has found several applications in targeting an array of different diseased conditions by providing various non-nucleoside therapeutic molecules as well. (wikipedia.org)