• otoliths
  • Our results indicate that reliable 3D reconstructions of inner ears including otoliths and maculae can be obtained by using high-resolution microCT imaging of specimens stained with phosphotungstic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • nerve fibers
  • Cochlear Nuclei All auditory nerve fibers terminate within the cochlear nuclei (CN), which comprise highly complex groupings of cells that together form a protuberance on the lateral surface of the brain stem at the medullopontine junction. (scribd.com)
  • For instance, spherical bushy cells in the rostral portion of the AVCN are contacted by the large axosomatic calcine endings (end bulbs of Held) of the ascending branches of auditory nerve fibers (Brawer and Morest, 1975). (scribd.com)
  • This highly specialized synaptic arrangement, which is characterized by little convergence from disparate regions of the cochlear partition, is important in preserving temporal information transmitted by auditory nerve fibers. (scribd.com)
  • However, iodine stained samples of cichlids [ 5 ] did not provide a sufficient contrast to discriminate otolith, otolithic membrane, maculae, and innervating nerve fibers of the VIII th cranial nerve. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cochlear
  • Beginning in the fifth week of development, the auditory vesicle also gives rise to the cochlear duct, which contains the spiral organ of Corti and the endolymph that accumulates in the membranous labyrinth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study characterized the behavior of cochlear macrophages after aminoglycoside ototoxicity and also examined the possible role of macrophages in sensory regeneration. (jove.com)
  • stimulation
  • An adequate stimulus (a threshold energy input causes a reaction of the sensory organ) triggers the stimulation of the organ i.e. light in the eye. (lecturio.com)
  • Finally, there is topographically patterned input to the superior colliculus and to the cerebellum, the latter receiving some of its input from the pontine nuclei activated by acoustic stimulation. (scribd.com)
  • nucleus
  • The central processes of these neurons are part of tegmentum of pons and terminate in the sensory nuclei of trigeminal nerve: nucleus tractus n. trigemini (pain, temperatura), the zone which applies to cervical segments of the spinal cord, and nucleus sensorius superior (tactile sensitivity). (scribd.com)
  • organ
  • Defining the cellular environment in the organ of Corti following extensive hair cell loss: a basis for future sensory cell replacement in the Cochlea. (biomedsearch.com)
  • brain
  • In addition to auditory nerve input, there is a rich network of interneurons that forms circuits within and between CN subdivisions (Lorente de No, 1981) along with a substantial set of afferents derived from neurons in other regions of the auditory brain stem. (scribd.com)
  • Middle Ear
  • Air reaches the middle ear through the Eustachian tube Eustachian tube [for Bartolomeo Eustachi], a hollow structure of bone and cartilage extending from the middle ear to the rear of the throat, or pharynx, technically known as the pharyngotympanic or auditory tube. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • patterns
  • Maculae are characterized by orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of the sensory hair cells, i.e. the morphologically and physiologically polarized ciliary bundles form differently oriented groups on the macula. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This in turn means that orientation patterns are obtained, shown, and compared between species in a purely two dimensionally way irrespective of the natural curvature of the maculae in the ear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As has already been stated by Platt and Popper (1981) [ 3 ], orientation patterns should preferably take into account the three dimensional structure of sensory epithelia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • spinal
  • The first sensory neurons (pseodounipolar ganglionic cells) are located in the trigeminal, or the Gassepovov, site (ganglion trigeminale) - form, homologous spinal site. (scribd.com)
  • signals
  • Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • serial
  • Comparison with maculae that have been 3D reconstructed based on histological serial sections and phalloidin-stained maculae showed high congruence in overall shape of the maculae studied here. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2 ]). These reconstructions based on histological serial sections were labor-intensive and results were in part uneven as maculae were prone to distortion or artifacts such as disruption during dehydration or embedding procedures. (biomedcentral.com)