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  • actin
  • Its important role in memory and information storage is executed through its cell biological mechanisms of phosphorylation, palmitoylation , protein-protein interaction and structural remodeling via actin polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following cleavage of the crosslinks and analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, it was found that the crosslinker increased the level of various proteins, and particularly actin, in this pellet fraction. (mdpi.com)
  • Calmodulin, but not actin or other proposed interaction partners, co-immunoprecipitated with GAP-43 from the 100,000 x g supernatant following crosslinker addition to cells or cell lysates. (mdpi.com)
  • Additional GAP-43 was recovered from GAP-43 immunoprecipitation supernatants with anti-calmodulin but not with anti-actin. (mdpi.com)
  • The results suggest that GAP-43 is not present in complexes with actin or other membrane skeletal or cytoskeletal proteins in these cells, but it is nevertheless possible that a small fraction of the total GAP-43 may interact with other proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • GAP-43 is a neuronal protein that regulates actin dynamics in growth cones and facilitates axonal growth. (nih.gov)
  • A) GAP-43 and γ-actin protein levels were assessed by immunoblot in N2a cell lysates 72 h after hnRNP-Q1 #1, hnRNP-Q1 #2, hnRNP-Q1 #3, or Scr siRNA transfection. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of neurofilament, substance P, smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, growth-associated protein 43, nerve growth factor, and neutrophin-3 in peritoneal endometriotic lesion samples from women with symptomatic endometriosis and in peritoneal samples from women without endometriosis. (genes2cognition.org)
  • In parallel with this experiment, Hall showed that the presence of Rac, another Ras-related GTP-binding protein, is implicated in the regulation of the actin organisation in presence of extracellular growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the inactivation of Rho protein by ADP-ribosylation in Rac1 microinjection reduced the formation of actin stress fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides, and cytokines that induce a cellular physiological response to regenerate from the damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • GAP43 has been termed a 'growth' or 'plasticity' protein because it is expressed at high levels in neuronal growth cones during development , during axonal regeneration and is phosphorylated after long-term potentiation (LTP) and after learning (reference needed). (wikipedia.org)
  • Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by mRNA-binding proteins is critical for neuronal development and function. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore hnRNP-Q1-mediated repression of Gap-43 mRNA translation provides an additional mechanism for regulating GAP-43 expression and function and may be critical for neuronal development. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we characterized the expression of HuD and GAP-43 mRNA in the hippocampus during two forms of neuronal plasticity. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Functional cooperation between TrkA and p75(NTR) accelerates neuronal differentiation by increased transcription of GAP-43 and p21(CIP/WAF) genes via ERK1/2 and AP-1 activities. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The result indicated that neuronal expression and regulated proteolysis of prion protein are essential for myelin maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction between NAIP and hippocalcin, a neuronal calcium-sensor protein, has been observed to take place in the zinc-binding region along with other specific amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippocalcin is a neuronal calcium-sensor protein which has two to three regions that can bind with calcium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampal
  • J. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Zou, L. Song and L. An -Catalpol Upregulates Hippocampal GAP-43 Level of Aged Rats with Enhanced Spatial Memory and Behavior Response,- Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 495-504. (duhnnae.com)
  • cytoskeletal
  • The immunofluorescence following the increase of vinculin and talin, two cytoskeletal proteins, at the intracellular face of the plasma membrane with Val14rhoA microinjection showed the association of focal adhesions with the end of the new stress fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • GFAP is an important intermediate filament protein that allows the astrocytes to begin synthesizing more cytoskeletal supportive structures and extend pseudopodia. (wikipedia.org)
  • GJA1
  • Despite its key role in the heart and other vital organs, GJA1 has a short half-life (only two to four hours), indicating that the protein undergoes daily turnover in the heart and may be highly abundant or compensated with other connexins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, GJA1 is expressed in many immune cells, such as eosinophils and T cells, where its gap junction function promotes the maturation and activation of these cells and, by extension, the cross-communication necessary to mount an inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, GJA1 can be found in the Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes, where it plays a key role in spermatogenesis and testis development through controlling the tight junction proteins in the blood-testis barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it is a channel protein, GJA1 can also perform channel-independent functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurite
  • To assess whether myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitory proteins contribute to this regulation, we applied the neutralizing antibodies IN-1 against one of the main inhibitory components of central myelin (NI-250) either in vivo or in vitro to organotypic cerebellar cultures. (jneurosci.org)
  • The myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitory proteins NI-35 and NI-250 ( Caroni and Schwab, 1988a ) are interesting candidate molecules for this function. (jneurosci.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Instead, the channels formed by these proteins (called pannexins) act as very large transmembrane pores that connect the intra- and extracellular compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transmembrane domains form the gap junction channel while the extracellular loops facilitate proper channel docking. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoskeleton
  • However, GAP-43 was not present, suggesting that GAP-43 was not extensively crosslinked to proteins of the cytoskeleton and membrane skeleton and did not sediment with them. (mdpi.com)
  • The C-terminal tail is composed of 50 amino acids and includes post-translational modification sites, as well as binding sites for transcription factors, cytoskeleton elements, and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions
  • The ELISA analytical biochemical technique of the MBS739175 kit is based on GAP43 antibody-GAP43 antigen interactions (immunosorbency) and an HRP colorimetric detection system to detect GAP43 antigen targets in samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • regeneration
  • One example of this approach is the discovery of the regeneration of axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by introducing several proteins into the chemical environment of these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuromodulin
  • It was designated F1, then B-50, then GAP43, pp46, and finally neuromodulin, each name reflecting a different function of the same molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • crucial
  • This protein is considered a crucial component of the axon and presynaptic terminal, its null mutation leading to death within days after birth due to axon pathfinding defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • After injury, astrocytes undergo morphological changes, extend their processes, and increase synthesis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • GAP-43 and hnRNP-Q1 were detected by immunofluorescence, and GFP-positive cells were imaged. (nih.gov)
  • Immunofluorescence and antibody techniques were used to localise the mutant V12rac1 protein after being microinjected into the cytoplasm of confluent serum-starved Swiss 3T3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminals
  • GAP43 is not only important for axon targeting during development but it has been shown to be important also for the maintenance of the structure and dynamics of axonal fibres and of their synaptic terminals in wild-type rodents both during normal conditions and during lesion-induced axonal sprouting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein passes through the phospholipid bilayer four times, leaving its C- and N-terminals exposed to the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Since the number of sites is limited, as more sites are occupied by GAP43 from the sample, fewer sites are left to bind GAP43-HRP conjugate. (mybiosource.com)
  • Clusters
  • Prion protein and antibodies POM1 and POM3, which recognize epitopes in the terminus (around amino acids (aa) 140-152) and charged clusters of prion protein (aa95-100)were used to their roll in myelin maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • GAP43, the consensus choice for its designation, is a nervous system-specific protein that is attached to the membrane via a dual palmitoylation sequence on cysteines 3 and 4, though it can exist in the non-bound form in the cytoplasm . (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Studies on another homozygous GAP43 knockout mouse line found it to be lethal days after birth because it plays a critical role in the development of the mammalian CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • Its important role in memory and information storage is executed through its cell biological mechanisms of phosphorylation, palmitoylation , protein-protein interaction and structural remodeling via actin polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following cleavage of the crosslinks and analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, it was found that the crosslinker increased the level of various proteins, and particularly actin, in this pellet fraction. (mdpi.com)
  • Calmodulin, but not actin or other proposed interaction partners, co-immunoprecipitated with GAP-43 from the 100,000 x g supernatant following crosslinker addition to cells or cell lysates. (mdpi.com)
  • Additional GAP-43 was recovered from GAP-43 immunoprecipitation supernatants with anti-calmodulin but not with anti-actin. (mdpi.com)
  • The results suggest that GAP-43 is not present in complexes with actin or other membrane skeletal or cytoskeletal proteins in these cells, but it is nevertheless possible that a small fraction of the total GAP-43 may interact with other proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • GAP-43 is a neuronal protein that regulates actin dynamics in growth cones and facilitates axonal growth. (nih.gov)
  • A) GAP-43 and γ-actin protein levels were assessed by immunoblot in N2a cell lysates 72 h after hnRNP-Q1 #1, hnRNP-Q1 #2, hnRNP-Q1 #3, or Scr siRNA transfection. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of neurofilament, substance P, smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, growth-associated protein 43, nerve growth factor, and neutrophin-3 in peritoneal endometriotic lesion samples from women with symptomatic endometriosis and in peritoneal samples from women without endometriosis. (genes2cognition.org)
  • In parallel with this experiment, Hall showed that the presence of Rac, another Ras-related GTP-binding protein, is implicated in the regulation of the actin organisation in presence of extracellular growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the inactivation of Rho protein by ADP-ribosylation in Rac1 microinjection reduced the formation of actin stress fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides, and cytokines that induce a cellular physiological response to regenerate from the damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • GAP43 has been termed a 'growth' or 'plasticity' protein because it is expressed at high levels in neuronal growth cones during development , during axonal regeneration and is phosphorylated after long-term potentiation (LTP) and after learning (reference needed). (wikipedia.org)
  • Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by mRNA-binding proteins is critical for neuronal development and function. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore hnRNP-Q1-mediated repression of Gap-43 mRNA translation provides an additional mechanism for regulating GAP-43 expression and function and may be critical for neuronal development. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we characterized the expression of HuD and GAP-43 mRNA in the hippocampus during two forms of neuronal plasticity. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Functional cooperation between TrkA and p75(NTR) accelerates neuronal differentiation by increased transcription of GAP-43 and p21(CIP/WAF) genes via ERK1/2 and AP-1 activities. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The result indicated that neuronal expression and regulated proteolysis of prion protein are essential for myelin maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction between NAIP and hippocalcin, a neuronal calcium-sensor protein, has been observed to take place in the zinc-binding region along with other specific amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippocalcin is a neuronal calcium-sensor protein which has two to three regions that can bind with calcium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampal
  • J. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Zou, L. Song and L. An -Catalpol Upregulates Hippocampal GAP-43 Level of Aged Rats with Enhanced Spatial Memory and Behavior Response,- Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 495-504. (duhnnae.com)
  • cytoskeletal
  • The immunofluorescence following the increase of vinculin and talin, two cytoskeletal proteins, at the intracellular face of the plasma membrane with Val14rhoA microinjection showed the association of focal adhesions with the end of the new stress fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • GFAP is an important intermediate filament protein that allows the astrocytes to begin synthesizing more cytoskeletal supportive structures and extend pseudopodia. (wikipedia.org)
  • GJA1
  • Despite its key role in the heart and other vital organs, GJA1 has a short half-life (only two to four hours), indicating that the protein undergoes daily turnover in the heart and may be highly abundant or compensated with other connexins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, GJA1 is expressed in many immune cells, such as eosinophils and T cells, where its gap junction function promotes the maturation and activation of these cells and, by extension, the cross-communication necessary to mount an inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, GJA1 can be found in the Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes, where it plays a key role in spermatogenesis and testis development through controlling the tight junction proteins in the blood-testis barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it is a channel protein, GJA1 can also perform channel-independent functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurite
  • To assess whether myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitory proteins contribute to this regulation, we applied the neutralizing antibodies IN-1 against one of the main inhibitory components of central myelin (NI-250) either in vivo or in vitro to organotypic cerebellar cultures. (jneurosci.org)
  • The myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitory proteins NI-35 and NI-250 ( Caroni and Schwab, 1988a ) are interesting candidate molecules for this function. (jneurosci.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Instead, the channels formed by these proteins (called pannexins) act as very large transmembrane pores that connect the intra- and extracellular compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transmembrane domains form the gap junction channel while the extracellular loops facilitate proper channel docking. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoskeleton
  • However, GAP-43 was not present, suggesting that GAP-43 was not extensively crosslinked to proteins of the cytoskeleton and membrane skeleton and did not sediment with them. (mdpi.com)
  • The C-terminal tail is composed of 50 amino acids and includes post-translational modification sites, as well as binding sites for transcription factors, cytoskeleton elements, and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions
  • The ELISA analytical biochemical technique of the MBS739175 kit is based on GAP43 antibody-GAP43 antigen interactions (immunosorbency) and an HRP colorimetric detection system to detect GAP43 antigen targets in samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • regeneration
  • One example of this approach is the discovery of the regeneration of axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by introducing several proteins into the chemical environment of these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuromodulin
  • It was designated F1, then B-50, then GAP43, pp46, and finally neuromodulin, each name reflecting a different function of the same molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • crucial
  • This protein is considered a crucial component of the axon and presynaptic terminal, its null mutation leading to death within days after birth due to axon pathfinding defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • After injury, astrocytes undergo morphological changes, extend their processes, and increase synthesis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • GAP-43 and hnRNP-Q1 were detected by immunofluorescence, and GFP-positive cells were imaged. (nih.gov)
  • Immunofluorescence and antibody techniques were used to localise the mutant V12rac1 protein after being microinjected into the cytoplasm of confluent serum-starved Swiss 3T3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminals
  • GAP43 is not only important for axon targeting during development but it has been shown to be important also for the maintenance of the structure and dynamics of axonal fibres and of their synaptic terminals in wild-type rodents both during normal conditions and during lesion-induced axonal sprouting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein passes through the phospholipid bilayer four times, leaving its C- and N-terminals exposed to the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Since the number of sites is limited, as more sites are occupied by GAP43 from the sample, fewer sites are left to bind GAP43-HRP conjugate. (mybiosource.com)
  • Clusters
  • Prion protein and antibodies POM1 and POM3, which recognize epitopes in the terminus (around amino acids (aa) 140-152) and charged clusters of prion protein (aa95-100)were used to their roll in myelin maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • GAP43, the consensus choice for its designation, is a nervous system-specific protein that is attached to the membrane via a dual palmitoylation sequence on cysteines 3 and 4, though it can exist in the non-bound form in the cytoplasm . (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Studies on another homozygous GAP43 knockout mouse line found it to be lethal days after birth because it plays a critical role in the development of the mammalian CNS. (wikipedia.org)