Loading...
  • mosses
  • Knockout mosses are relevant for basic research in biology as well as in biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, this method of gene targeting in land plants has been carried out in the mosses Physcomitrella patens and Ceratodon purpureus, since in these non-seed plant species the efficiency of HR is several orders of magnitude higher than in seed plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout mosses are stored at and distributed by a specialized Biobank, the International Moss Stock Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mosses are haploid organisms, the regenerating moss filaments (protonemata) can be directly assayed for gene targeting within 6 weeks when utilizing PCR-methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • These knockout mosses are used to produce complex biopharmaceuticals in the field of molecular farming. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cooperation with the chemical company BASF Ralf Reski and coworkers established a collection of knockout mosses that is used for gene identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • meaning that an exogenous DNA sequence can be targeted to a specific genomic position (a technique called gene targeting) to create knockout mosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Originally, naturally occurring mutations were identified and then gene loss or inactivation had to be established by DNA sequencing or other methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of several mutations to certain classes of genes is usually required before a normal cell will transform into a cancer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in genes that regulate cell division, apoptosis (cell death), and DNA repair may result in uncontrolled cell proliferation and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small-scale mutations include point mutations, deletions, and insertions, which may occur in the promoter of a gene and affect its expression, or may occur in the gene's coding sequence and alter the function or stability of its protein product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "Dmc" stands for "disrupted meiotic cDNA" and refers to the method used for its discovery which involved using clones from a meiosis-specific cDNA library to direct knock-out mutations of abundantly expressed meiotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The l -valine production strain of Escherichia coli was constructed by rational metabolic engineering and stepwise improvement based on transcriptome analysis and gene knockout simulation of the in silico genome-scale metabolic network. (pnas.org)
  • We have developed a new microarray-based genetic technique, named MGK (Monitoring of Gene Knockouts), for genome-wide identification of conditionally essential genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Assessing the contribution of a particular gene product to the welfare of the cell is an intrinsically difficult task to perform on a genome-wide scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study presents a genome-wide analysis of how the expression of synthetic genes is affected by systematic perturbations of cellular functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this work, we investigated the interaction between cell function and synthetic gene expression in knockouts of all non-essential genes in the E. coli genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The targeted deletion or alteration of genes relies on the integration of a DNA strand at a specific and predictable position into the genome of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The targeted deletion or alteration of moss genes relies on the integration of a short DNA strand at a defined position in the genome of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout organisms are also used as screening tools in the development of drugs, to target specific biological processes or deficiencies by using a specific knockout, or to understand the mechanism of action of a drug by using a library of knockout organisms spanning the entire genome, such as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human BPIFB1 genome location and BPIFB1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomes
  • Starting with curious initial observations of genetic elements known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) within bacterial genomes (Ishino et al . (bio-protocol.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Little is known about the division of eukaryotic cell organelles and up to now neither in animals nor in plants has a gene product been shown to mediate this process. (pnas.org)
  • However, the involvement of this gene in eukaryotic organelle division has not been demonstrated ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • disruption
  • The utility of MGK was further verified by identifying genes whose disruption resulted in bacterial cell death in the presence of the bacteriostatic antibiotic chloramphenicol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, and such an event may also result in the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants. (wikipedia.org)
  • ftsZ-gene
  • They deleted the ftsZ-gene and thus functionally identified the first gene pivotal for the division of an organelle in any eukaryote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the results of further research on the ftsZ-gene family, Ralf Reski coined the term "plastoskeleton", analogous to the term "cytoskeleton", in 2000 and presented a new concept in cell biology of how chloroplasts, the green cell organelles of plants, change shape and divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • FtsZ is a protein encoded by the ftsZ gene that assembles into a ring at the future site of the septum of bacterial cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • NA (solid LB medium without NaCl) and NB (liquid LB medium without NaCl) with 10% sucrose were used during the gene allelic exchange experiments to select plasmids that had been excised from the chromosome. (hindawi.com)
  • generated a mouse model with disruptions and insertions in the Sry and Uty genes using transcription activator-linked nuclease (TALEN) technology, demonstrating the usefulness of this tool to study the function of Y chromosome genes. (g3journal.org)
  • The human LECT2 gene, ALECT2, is located on the long, i.e, "q", arm of chromosome 5 at position q31.1 (notated as 5q31.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is found with other members of the superfamily in a cluster on chromosome 20. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • We tested the role of physiological levels of VIP on immune responses to murine CMV (mCMV) using VIP-knockout (VIP-KO) mice and radiation chimeras engrafted with syngenic VIP-KO hematopoietic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Even though VIP and PACAP signal through the same receptors, PACAP does not fully compensate for the loss of VIP in VIP-knockout (VIP-KO) mice ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • eukaryote
  • While several genes essential for bacterial cytokinesis have been identified ( 2 , 3 ), no gene product has been found to mediate organelle division in a eukaryote. (pnas.org)
  • Escherichia
  • The Escherichia coli Fur protein, with its iron(II) cofactor, represses iron assimilation and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) genes, thus coupling iron metabolism to protection against oxygen toxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Control of Escherichia coli superoxide dismutase (sodA and sodB) genes by the ferric uptake regulation (fur) locus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification and characterization of new iron-regulated Escherichia coli genes by a fur titration assay. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effects of fur on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of MnSOD gene (sodA) in Escherichia coli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • variants
  • The gene has numerous single nucleotide variants as well as other variations, some of which have been associated with human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variants of inherited genes may predispose individuals to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockdown
  • Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. (g3journal.org)
  • strains
  • The bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are given in Table 1 . (hindawi.com)
  • Most amino acid-producing bacterial strains have been constructed by random mutagenesis. (pnas.org)
  • Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. (g3journal.org)
  • zinc finger n
  • knocked out an exogenous gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), and two endogenous genes ( IgM and Rab38 ) in rat embryos using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology, and demonstrated functional loss of the genes in transgenic rats. (g3journal.org)
  • A knockout zebrafish line was generated in 2014 using the zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated targeted gene editing system. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Expression varies depending on the nature of the gene. (origene.com)
  • Regression analyses were used to discriminate between expression-specific and gene-specific effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functions of the deleted genes broadly mapped onto three systems with distinct primary influence on the Size-Expression map. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Feedback between cell growth and gene expression is widespread across cell systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Even though most gene disruptions proximally affect one component of the Size-Expression interaction, the effect therefore ultimately propagates to both. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More specifically, we describe the dual impact of growth on cell size and gene expression through cell division and ribosomal content. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, we elucidate aspects of the tight control between swarming, gene expression and cell growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A systematic understanding of the relationships and feedbacks linking cell function and gene expression is required to build such models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic and epigenetic changes can occur at many levels, from gain or loss of entire chromosomes, to a mutation affecting a single DNA nucleotide, or to silencing or activating a microRNA that controls expression of 100 to 500 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutants
  • MGK uses flanking sequences of inserted antibiotic cassette (used for inactivation of a gene) as identifiers of mutants and allows simultaneous monitoring of thousands of mutants in a mixed library. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MGK simultaneously tracks the relative abundance of individual mutants in gene inactivation libraries grown in a reference and experimental condition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gene was discovered in the 1950s by Y. Hirota (ja:廣田幸敬) and his colleagues in a screen for bacterial cell division mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physcomitrella
  • To date, the Freiburg Chair of Plant Biotechnology hosts an online database of Physcomitrella patens comprising the genomic sequence, annotated gene models and supplemental information. (wikipedia.org)
  • reveals
  • F. Mittmann, S. Dienstbach, A. Weisert, C. Forreiter, 2009: Analysis of the phytochrome gene family in Ceratodon purpureus by gene targeting reveals the primary phytochrome responsible for phototropism and polarotropism. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene ( bcsR ) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion into epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, redundancies and overlapping functions in biological signaling pathways can call for generating multi-gene knockout cells, which remains a relatively laborious process. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Here we detail the application of multi-color LentiCRISPR vectors to simultaneously generate single and multiple knockouts in human cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • We provide a complete protocol, including guide RNA design, LentiCRISPR cloning, viral production and transduction, as well as strategies for sorting and screening knockout cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • This protocol enables any lab with access to basic cellular biology equipment, a biosafety level 2 facility and fluorescence-activated cell sorting capabilities to generate single and multi-gene knockout cell lines or primary cells efficiently within one month. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Resulting animals with the genetic change in their germline cells can then often pass the gene knockout to future generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enables easy selection of cells or individuals in which knockout was successful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, recent work with purified FtsZ on supported lipid bilayers as well as imaging FtsZ in living bacterial cells revealed that FtsZ protofilaments have polarity and move in one direction by treadmilling (see also below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor suppressor genes are genes that inhibit cell division, survival, or other properties of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • In the former, only one of two gene copies (alleles) is knocked out, in the latter both are knocked out. (wikipedia.org)
  • In diploid organisms, which contain two alleles for most genes, and may as well contain several related genes that collaborate in the same role, additional rounds of transformation and selection are performed until every targeted gene is knocked out. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • A bcsR knockout mutant (Δ bcsR ) of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 showed decreased adhesion/invasion (3.9-fold) in human epithelial cell line HCT-8. (frontiersin.org)
  • MGK identified bacterial genes that are critical for fitness in the absence of aromatic amino acids, and was further applied to identify genes whose inactivation causes bacterial cell death upon exposure to the bacteriostatic antibiotic chloramphenicol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To address these issues, tools are being engineered to shield the functions or predict the behavior of synthetic genes in the cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, we mapped the global effect of single-gene deletions using cell size as an integral proxy of cellular biogenesis, and specific effects on individual synthetic genes via a dual-fluorescence genetic construct. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1, FPR1 receptor, fMet-Leu-Phe receptor 1, FMLP receptor 1, or N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine receptor 1) is a cell surface receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiencies
  • They demonstrated reduced locomotor activity, altered myelin-related genes and neuron-specific deficiencies in circuit formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Bacterial species with two genes for alanine racemase have one that is continually expressed and one that is inducible, which makes it difficult to target both genes for drug studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These T3SSs are similar as a result of divergent evolution and phylogenetic analysis supports a model in which gram-negative bacteria can transfer the T3SS gene cassette horizontally to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • In a model MGK screen, we successfully identified all 13 known genes whose inactivation confers aromatic amino acid auxotrophy on E. coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two receptors where thereafter discovered and named FPR2 and FPR3 based on the similarity of their genes' predicted amino acid sequence to that of FPR1 rather than on any ability to bind or be activated by the formyl oligopeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • identification
  • To address this problem, we developed a simple and robust method, named MGK (Monitoring of Gene Knockouts), for the rapid identification of genes that contribute to bacterial fitness in various selective conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Examples are the identification of moss genes with implications for crop improvement or human health and the safe production of complex biopharmaceuticals in moss bioreactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • Three guide RNA (gRNAs) were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA) recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI) assay, and TA clone sequencing. (g3journal.org)
  • At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. (g3journal.org)