• mosses
  • Knockout mosses are relevant for basic research in biology as well as in biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, this method of gene targeting in land plants has been carried out in the mosses Physcomitrella patens and Ceratodon purpureus, since in these non-seed plant species the efficiency of HR is several orders of magnitude higher than in seed plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout mosses are stored at and distributed by a specialized Biobank, the International Moss Stock Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mosses are haploid organisms, the regenerating moss filaments (protonemata) can be directly assayed for gene targeting within 6 weeks when utilizing PCR-methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • These knockout mosses are used to produce complex biopharmaceuticals in the field of molecular farming. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cooperation with the chemical company BASF Ralf Reski and coworkers established a collection of knockout mosses that is used for gene identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • meaning that an exogenous DNA sequence can be targeted to a specific genomic position (a technique called gene targeting) to create knockout mosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • We tested the role of physiological levels of VIP on immune responses to murine CMV (mCMV) using VIP-knockout (VIP-KO) mice and radiation chimeras engrafted with syngenic VIP-KO hematopoietic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Even though VIP and PACAP signal through the same receptors, PACAP does not fully compensate for the loss of VIP in VIP-knockout (VIP-KO) mice ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Homozygous knockout mice for this gene exhibit impaired anaphylactic response, resistance to bacterial infection, and reduced pain-related behavior. (origene.com)
  • The aim of this study is to determine (1) whether CD36 is required for the maintenance of the corneal epithelial barrier to infection, and (2) whether CD36-deficient mice present with an increased susceptibility to bacterial keratitis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Bacterial quantification revealed high levels of Staphylococcus xylosus in the corneas of CD36 −/− mice with severe defects, but not in wild-type controls. (arvojournals.org)
  • CD36 −/− mice develop spontaneous bacterial keratitis independent of TLR2 and TSP1. (arvojournals.org)
  • This is the first report of spontaneous bacterial keratitis in mice. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although Staphylococci are found in the normal flora of the ocular surface, mice are highly resistant to infection and do not develop spontaneous bacterial keratitis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mice express no less than 7 Fpr receptors and encoding genes that are homologous to FPR1 although no single one of these FPRs appears to perform exactly the same functions as any one of the human FPRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • NA (solid LB medium without NaCl) and NB (liquid LB medium without NaCl) with 10% sucrose were used during the gene allelic exchange experiments to select plasmids that had been excised from the chromosome. (hindawi.com)
  • generated a mouse model with disruptions and insertions in the Sry and Uty genes using transcription activator-linked nuclease (TALEN) technology, demonstrating the usefulness of this tool to study the function of Y chromosome genes. (g3journal.org)
  • The human LECT2 gene, ALECT2, is located on the long, i.e, "q", arm of chromosome 5 at position q31.1 (notated as 5q31.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although developed in bacteria, much of the inspiration for recombineering techniques came from methods first developed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where a linear plasmid was used to target genes or clone genes off the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is found with other members of the superfamily in a cluster on chromosome 20. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Originally, naturally occurring mutations were identified and then gene loss or inactivation had to be established by DNA sequencing or other methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of several mutations to certain classes of genes is usually required before a normal cell will transform into a cancer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in genes that regulate cell division, apoptosis (cell death), and DNA repair may result in uncontrolled cell proliferation and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small-scale mutations include point mutations, deletions, and insertions, which may occur in the promoter of a gene and affect its expression, or may occur in the gene's coding sequence and alter the function or stability of its protein product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "Dmc" stands for "disrupted meiotic cDNA" and refers to the method used for its discovery which involved using clones from a meiosis-specific cDNA library to direct knock-out mutations of abundantly expressed meiotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • We have developed a new microarray-based genetic technique, named MGK (Monitoring of Gene Knockouts), for genome-wide identification of conditionally essential genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Assessing the contribution of a particular gene product to the welfare of the cell is an intrinsically difficult task to perform on a genome-wide scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the CRISPR-Cas9 system has become an increasingly popular tool for genome editing, the desire to improve efficiency of precise CRISPR-mediated gene editing has arisen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has emerged as an effective tool for sequence-specific gene knockout through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), but it remains inefficient for precise editing of genome sequences. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The targeted deletion or alteration of genes relies on the integration of a DNA strand at a specific and predictable position into the genome of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The targeted deletion or alteration of moss genes relies on the integration of a short DNA strand at a defined position in the genome of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout organisms are also used as screening tools in the development of drugs, to target specific biological processes or deficiencies by using a specific knockout, or to understand the mechanism of action of a drug by using a library of knockout organisms spanning the entire genome, such as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human BPIFB1 genome location and BPIFB1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockdown
  • Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. (g3journal.org)
  • Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens. (g3journal.org)
  • encodes
  • This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor cell surface protein that binds and is activated by N-Formylmethionine-containing oligopeptides, particularly N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene is also known as 15E1.2 and encodes part of an Glu-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein that contains a mono-ADP-ribosylation (ART) motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • zinc finger n
  • knocked out an exogenous gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), and two endogenous genes ( IgM and Rab38 ) in rat embryos using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology, and demonstrated functional loss of the genes in transgenic rats. (g3journal.org)
  • A knockout zebrafish line was generated in 2014 using the zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated targeted gene editing system. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutants
  • MGK uses flanking sequences of inserted antibiotic cassette (used for inactivation of a gene) as identifiers of mutants and allows simultaneous monitoring of thousands of mutants in a mixed library. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MGK simultaneously tracks the relative abundance of individual mutants in gene inactivation libraries grown in a reference and experimental condition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gene was discovered in the 1950s by Y. Hirota (ja:廣田幸敬) and his colleagues in a screen for bacterial cell division mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physcomitrella
  • To date, the Freiburg Chair of Plant Biotechnology hosts an online database of Physcomitrella patens comprising the genomic sequence, annotated gene models and supplemental information. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • In this study, gene families of RNA silencing machinery in B. napus were identified and their role in resistance to S. sclerotiorum was revealed. (frontiersin.org)
  • For gene replacements or deletions, usually a cassette encoding a drug-resistance gene is made by PCR using bi-partite primers. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Genetic and epigenetic changes can occur at many levels, from gain or loss of entire chromosomes, to a mutation affecting a single DNA nucleotide, or to silencing or activating a microRNA that controls expression of 100 to 500 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reveals
  • F. Mittmann, S. Dienstbach, A. Weisert, C. Forreiter, 2009: Analysis of the phytochrome gene family in Ceratodon purpureus by gene targeting reveals the primary phytochrome responsible for phototropism and polarotropism. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene ( bcsR ) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion into epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. (g3journal.org)
  • Resulting animals with the genetic change in their germline cells can then often pass the gene knockout to future generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enables easy selection of cells or individuals in which knockout was successful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, recent work with purified FtsZ on supported lipid bilayers as well as imaging FtsZ in living bacterial cells revealed that FtsZ protofilaments have polarity and move in one direction by treadmilling (see also below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor suppressor genes are genes that inhibit cell division, survival, or other properties of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • In the former, only one of two gene copies (alleles) is knocked out, in the latter both are knocked out. (wikipedia.org)
  • In diploid organisms, which contain two alleles for most genes, and may as well contain several related genes that collaborate in the same role, additional rounds of transformation and selection are performed until every targeted gene is knocked out. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiencies
  • They demonstrated reduced locomotor activity, altered myelin-related genes and neuron-specific deficiencies in circuit formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Moreover, compared with Arabidopsis, some AGO and RDR genes such as AGO1, AGO4, AGO9 , and RDR5 had significantly expanded in these Brassica species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacterial species with two genes for alanine racemase have one that is continually expressed and one that is inducible, which makes it difficult to target both genes for drug studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These T3SSs are similar as a result of divergent evolution and phylogenetic analysis supports a model in which gram-negative bacteria can transfer the T3SS gene cassette horizontally to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • In a model MGK screen, we successfully identified all 13 known genes whose inactivation confers aromatic amino acid auxotrophy on E. coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • expression
  • Expression varies depending on the nature of the gene. (origene.com)
  • Protein expression is driven by a strong bacterial promoter (TAC). (google.com)
  • RNA silencing is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and antiviral defense in plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • S. sclerotiorum inoculation strongly induced the expression of BnCAMTA3 genes while significantly suppressed that of some CGCG-containing RNA silencing component genes, suggesting that RNA silencing machinery might be targeted by CAMTA3. (frontiersin.org)
  • regulate
  • In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • However, individual transcript sequences of the same gene can differ through naturally occurring variations (e.g. polymorphisms), each with its own valid existence. (origene.com)
  • The construct is engineered to recombine with the target gene, which is accomplished by incorporating sequences from the gene itself into the construct. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done by introducing short sequences called loxP sites around the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This germ-line can then be crossed to another germline containing Cre-recombinase which is a viral enzyme that can recognize these sequences, recombines them and deletes the gene flanked by these sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • Similarly the terms triple knockout (TKO) and quadruple knockouts (QKO) are used to describe three or four knocked out genes, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since these oligopeptides were produced by bacteria or synthetic analogs of such products, it was suggested that the N-formyl oligopeptides are important chemotatic factors and their receptors are important chemotactic factor receptors that act respectively as signaling and signal-recognizing elements to initiate Inflammation responses in order to defend against bacterial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • Three guide RNA (gRNAs) were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA) recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI) assay, and TA clone sequencing. (g3journal.org)
  • mutant
  • A bcsR knockout mutant (Δ bcsR ) of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 showed decreased adhesion/invasion (3.9-fold) in human epithelial cell line HCT-8. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since the introduction of global transposon mutagenesis and gene replacement techniques, gene knockout mutant collections for a variety of micro-organisms have been generated, and many more are in progress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • clone
  • The molecular sequence of this clone aligns with the gene accession number as a point of reference only. (origene.com)
  • Recombination
  • Recombination then occurs in the region of that sequence within the gene, resulting in the insertion of a foreign sequence to disrupt the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1, FPR1 receptor, fMet-Leu-Phe receptor 1, FMLP receptor 1, or N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine receptor 1) is a cell surface receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • The DMC1 gene and protein were discovered in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae by Douglas Bishop when he was a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Nancy Kleckner at Harvard University. (wikipedia.org)
  • identification
  • Examples are the identification of moss genes with implications for crop improvement or human health and the safe production of complex biopharmaceuticals in moss bioreactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Oncogenes may be normal genes that are expressed at inappropriately high levels, or altered genes that have novel properties. (wikipedia.org)