• substrates
  • In contrast to polyisoprenoid phosphates serving as cofactors in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins, glucosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor or bacterial peptidoglycan, the biological importance of polyprenols and dolichols still remains a question of debate besides their function of reservoir of substrates for kinase. (docplayer.net)
  • 2017) show that intrinsic properties of the substrate proteins contribute as well: good kinase substrates tend to be phosphorylated early, and good phosphatase substrates tend to be phosphorylated late. (stanford.edu)
  • phosphatase
  • A generic tristable system, which couples the phosphatase and kinase switches, exclusively explains how moderate and high elevation of intracellular calcium concentration triggers long-term depression (LTD) and LTP, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study, introducing calcium influx and calcium release from internal store into the tristable system, further show that significant elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration switches activation of both kinase and phosphatase to their basal states, thereby depotentiate the synaptic strength. (frontiersin.org)
  • There have been a number of substantial theoretical investigations of the multi-stable mechanism of phosphatase and kinase switches which could account for LTP and LTD. Early simulation works proposed that the bistable switch formed by kinase, Ca 2+ /CaM protein kinase II (CaMKII), autophosphorylation underlies the stable transition between the basal and LTP states ( Lisman, 1989 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Even more importantly, coupling of the phosphatase and kinase switches produces a tristable system, which exclusively explains how moderate and high elevation of intracellular calcium concentration triggers LTD and LTP, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • out of 540 different protein kinase genes that make up for human kinome, only one other protein kinase, Casein kinase 2, is known to exist in a physiological tetrameric complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the in vivo study, we found that the levels of mrna of two chlorophyllases involved in chlorophyll catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana, products of the AtCLH1 and AtCLH2 genes, dramatically increase upon illumination with white light. (docplayer.net)
  • presynaptic
  • For example, one study found that Group I mGluRs are located mostly on postsynaptic parts of cells, while groups II and III are mostly located on presynaptic elements, though they have been found on both pre- and postsynaptic membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12 Capsaicin, by binding to the ligand-gated vanilloid-sensitive transient receptor potential channel, TRPV1, on presynaptic terminals, directly catalyzes Ca +2 entry and also effects a depolarization that activates presynaptic calcium channels, as well as releasing Ca +2 from intracellular reticuli whose membranes contain TRPV1 channels, 13 all of which result in the release of glutamate and SP from primary nociceptor terminals. (asahq.org)
  • phospholipase
  • The Gα·GTP and Gβγ subunits of the heterotrimer then dissociate and are thus free to propagate the signal forward via separate (and sometimes converging) interactions with adenylyl cyclases, phospholipase‑C isoforms, potassium and calcium ion channels, guanine-nucleotide exchange factors for the GTPase RhoA ("RhoGEFs"), and other "effector" enzymes [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • inhibitor
  • Pretreatment with Triton X-100, a detergent that damages the endocardial endothelium (EE), or with 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo-(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a specific inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, or with the cGMP-activated protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor KT5328, abolished ANG II-mediated inotropism. (biologists.org)
  • Our study on the detergent-reconstituted enzyme shows that chlorophyllide a and phytol, the products of chlorophyll a hydrolysis, affect the activity, but their effects are antagonistic: chlorophyllide a activates chlorophyllase while phytol acts as the inhibitor. (docplayer.net)
  • calcium
  • In comparison to calcium (Ca), the most abundant cation in the human body, Mg 2+ displays higher affinity for oxygen donor ligands, that is negatively charged carboxylates and phosphates or enolate moieties (WOLF, CITTADINI 2003). (docplayer.net)
  • Incubation of rat brain frontal cortical slices with 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H -3-benzazepine (SKF83959), a recently identified selective agonist of the PI-linked D 1 -like dopamine receptor, elicited transient time- and dose-dependent stimulations of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) activities. (aspetjournals.org)
  • genome
  • Normal cellular homologs of v-Raf and v-Mil were soon found in both the mouse and chicken genome (hence the name c-Raf for the normal cellular Raf gene), and it became clear that these too had a role in regulating growth and cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • negatively
  • The close proximity of these two domains as well as several lines of experimental data suggest that they act as a single unit to negatively regulate the activity of the protein kinase domain, by direct physical interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • focal
  • The disruption of organelles is evidenced by the loss of Nissl substances, the formation of ribosomal rosettes, and swelling are reversible, DNH fragmentation is a characteristic of apoptosis, has been demonstrated after both focal and global Ischemic insult, found in CA1 region of hippocampus. (blogspot.com)
  • activation
  • Moreover, we found that cdk5 phosphorylates dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein at Thr75, whereas CaMK II is responsible for the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein in response to SKF83959 stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • subfamily
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1), a member of the delta-retroviridae subfamily, was the first human pathogenic retrovirus discovered and found to contribute to cancer development , . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • species
  • A question remains open as how the activity of chlorophyllase is regulated in vivo, especially in species which constitutively posses the enzyme. (docplayer.net)
  • pathways
  • In addition, aminoacylation can occur by indirect pathways that rely on mischarged tRNA intermediates and enzymes other than aaRSs. (schoolbag.info)
  • family
  • Several infants with severe forms of long-QT syndrome (LQTS) who displayed life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias together with delayed neurodevelopment and epilepsy were found to have mutations in either this gene or another member of the calmodulin gene family (PMID:23388215). (nih.gov)
  • C-Raf is a member of the Raf kinase family of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases, from the TKL (Tyrosine-kinase-like) group of kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Included in spinal responses to peripheral nerve input are the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), a family of serine-threonine protein kinases that are activated in spinal cord by noxious peripheral stimuli and play important roles in modulating signal transduction, both acutely by protein phosphorylation and chronically by affecting gene transcription. (asahq.org)
  • Each aaRS enzyme in this family links a single amino acid covalently to one or more tRNA isoacceptors to form charged tRNAs. (schoolbag.info)
  • The aaRSs are an ancient family of enzymes that have a lengthy and diverse evolutionary history. (schoolbag.info)
  • Crystallization of individual aaRS domains has also provided insight into structure-function relationships of this diverse family of enzymes. (schoolbag.info)
  • several
  • Several years later after the discovery of c-Raf, two further related kinases were described: A-Raf and B-Raf. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the past decade, ectonucleotidases belonging to several enzyme families have been discovered, cloned and characterized. (springer.com)
  • activity
  • They won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1992 for their work on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and how it relates to protein kinase A activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 10, 13, and 17. (nih.gov)
  • RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase, also known as proto-oncogene c-RAF or simply c-Raf or even Raf-1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RAF1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first Raf gene, v-Raf was found in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, another transforming gene was found in the avian retrovirus MH2, named v-Mil - that turned out to be highly similar to v-Raf. (wikipedia.org)
  • demonstrate
  • Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the expression of enzymes involved in chlorophyll catabolism is light-controlled. (docplayer.net)
  • group
  • The chemicals 2-(2,3-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) and eglumegad activate only group II mGluRs, while 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) activates only group III mGluRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • All cells function to maintain the resting condition adenylate metabolite concentrations as best as possible in the face of increasing ATP demand. (hindawi.com)
  • domain
  • On its N-terminal segment, a Ras-binding domain (RBD) and a C-kinase homologous domain 1 (C1 domain) are found next to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, this autoinhibitory block was labelled as the CR1 region ("Conserved Region 1"), the hinge region being named CR2, and the kinase domain CR3. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • We found virus type-specific (HTLV1 vs. HTLV3), expression-specific (Tax1 vs. Tax3) and cell-type-specific (T lymphocytes vs. kidney epithelial cells) changes in the metabolite profiles. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • responsible
  • The key enzymes of polyisoprenoid synthesis are cis-prenyltransferases (CTPs), responsible for construction of the long hydrocarbon skeleton. (docplayer.net)