• mitogen-activa
  • Now we know that c-Raf is a principal component of the first described mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway: ERK1/2 signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used a well-characterized monocrotaline (MCT)-induced rat PH model, and analyzed lung morphology, expression of cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI-3k-Akt) pathway and nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which sildenafil's protective effect in PH is exerted. (jove.com)
  • Materials and methods: Clonogenic survival assays and Western blot examinations were performed following telecobalt irradiation of cancer cells in the presence or absence of various combinations of PARP- and selective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. (jove.com)
  • living organism
  • Liliana Surmacz, Ewa Swiezewska Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland Ewa Swiezewska The polyisoprenoid alcohols (dolichols and polyprenols) are found in all living organism, from bacteria to mammals. (docplayer.net)
  • substrates
  • In contrast to polyisoprenoid phosphates serving as cofactors in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins, glucosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor or bacterial peptidoglycan, the biological importance of polyprenols and dolichols still remains a question of debate besides their function of reservoir of substrates for kinase. (docplayer.net)
  • 2017) show that intrinsic properties of the substrate proteins contribute as well: good kinase substrates tend to be phosphorylated early, and good phosphatase substrates tend to be phosphorylated late. (stanford.edu)
  • gene
  • The first Raf gene, v-Raf was found in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, another transforming gene was found in the avian retrovirus MH2, named v-Mil - that turned out to be highly similar to v-Raf. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal cellular homologs of v-Raf and v-Mil were soon found in both the mouse and chicken genome (hence the name c-Raf for the normal cellular Raf gene), and it became clear that these too had a role in regulating growth and cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • One gene of particular interest is ras, which is found mutated at high frequency in a number of malignancies. (embl.de)
  • genes
  • out of 540 different protein kinase genes that make up for human kinome, only one other protein kinase, Casein kinase 2, is known to exist in a physiological tetrameric complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the in vivo study, we found that the levels of mrna of two chlorophyllases involved in chlorophyll catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana, products of the AtCLH1 and AtCLH2 genes, dramatically increase upon illumination with white light. (docplayer.net)
  • presynaptic
  • For example, one study found that Group I mGluRs are located mostly on postsynaptic parts of cells, while groups II and III are mostly located on presynaptic elements, though they have been found on both pre- and postsynaptic membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12 Capsaicin, by binding to the ligand-gated vanilloid-sensitive transient receptor potential channel, TRPV1, on presynaptic terminals, directly catalyzes Ca +2 entry and also effects a depolarization that activates presynaptic calcium channels, as well as releasing Ca +2 from intracellular reticuli whose membranes contain TRPV1 channels, 13 all of which result in the release of glutamate and SP from primary nociceptor terminals. (asahq.org)
  • receptors
  • Stimulating the receptors causes the associated enzyme phospholipase C to hydrolyze phosphoinositide phospholipids in the cell's plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, these receptors regulate the levels of cAMP, which in turn regulates the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • 12 Activation of the inotropic receptors causes a postsynaptic membrane depolarization and Ca +2 entry, whereas metabotropic receptors activate various kinases and also indirectly increase [Ca +2 ] in dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord. (asahq.org)
  • negatively
  • The close proximity of these two domains as well as several lines of experimental data suggest that they act as a single unit to negatively regulate the activity of the protein kinase domain, by direct physical interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison to calcium (Ca), the most abundant cation in the human body, Mg 2+ displays higher affinity for oxygen donor ligands, that is negatively charged carboxylates and phosphates or enolate moieties (WOLF, CITTADINI 2003). (docplayer.net)
  • calcium
  • Incubation of rat brain frontal cortical slices with 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H -3-benzazepine (SKF83959), a recently identified selective agonist of the PI-linked D 1 -like dopamine receptor, elicited transient time- and dose-dependent stimulations of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) activities. (aspetjournals.org)
  • activation
  • Moreover, we found that cdk5 phosphorylates dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein at Thr75, whereas CaMK II is responsible for the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein in response to SKF83959 stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • subfamily
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1), a member of the delta-retroviridae subfamily, was the first human pathogenic retrovirus discovered and found to contribute to cancer development , . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • pathways
  • In addition, aminoacylation can occur by indirect pathways that rely on mischarged tRNA intermediates and enzymes other than aaRSs. (schoolbag.info)
  • besides
  • Besides the aforementioned changes in kinase signaling, we detected increased p53, unchanged Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression in the A549 cell line. (jove.com)
  • activity
  • These mutations induce an uncontrolled, high activity of Raf enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our study on the detergent-reconstituted enzyme shows that chlorophyllide a and phytol, the products of chlorophyll a hydrolysis, affect the activity, but their effects are antagonistic: chlorophyllide a activates chlorophyllase while phytol acts as the inhibitor. (docplayer.net)
  • motif
  • A second, similar motif is found on the extreme C-terminus (centered around the phosphorylatable Ser 621) of all Raf enzymes, but downstream of the kinase domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • demonstrate
  • Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the expression of enzymes involved in chlorophyll catabolism is light-controlled. (docplayer.net)
  • different
  • An activator of over 300 different enzymes, magnesium participates in many metabolic processes, such as glycolysis, Krebs cycle, β-oxidation or ion transport across cell membranes. (docplayer.net)
  • effects
  • These data suggest a beneficial effect of sildenafil on inflammatory and kinase signaling mechanisms that substantially contribute to its protective effects, and may have potential implications in designing future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. (jove.com)
  • cell
  • We found virus type-specific (HTLV1 vs. HTLV3), expression-specific (Tax1 vs. Tax3) and cell-type-specific (T lymphocytes vs. kidney epithelial cells) changes in the metabolite profiles. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • group
  • The chemicals 2-(2,3-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) and eglumegad activate only group II mGluRs, while 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) activates only group III mGluRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • All cells function to maintain the resting condition adenylate metabolite concentrations as best as possible in the face of increasing ATP demand. (hindawi.com)
  • domain
  • On its N-terminal segment, a Ras-binding domain (RBD) and a C-kinase homologous domain 1 (C1 domain) are found next to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, this autoinhibitory block was labelled as the CR1 region ("Conserved Region 1"), the hinge region being named CR2, and the kinase domain CR3. (wikipedia.org)
  • responsible
  • The key enzymes of polyisoprenoid synthesis are cis-prenyltransferases (CTPs), responsible for construction of the long hydrocarbon skeleton. (docplayer.net)
  • Inhibition of Ras can be accomplished through inhibition of farnesyl transferase, the enzyme responsible for this modification. (embl.de)
  • region
  • The disruption of organelles is evidenced by the loss of Nissl substances, the formation of ribosomal rosettes, and swelling are reversible, DNH fragmentation is a characteristic of apoptosis, has been demonstrated after both focal and global Ischemic insult, found in CA1 region of hippocampus. (blogspot.com)
  • development
  • Oxidative stress and neurohumoral factors play important role in the development of hypertension-induced vascular remodeling, likely by disregulating kinase cascades and transcription factors. (jove.com)