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  • proteins
  • These include other possible transcriptional partners for YAP (ErbB, Runx2, and chromatin modeling proteins) as well as the negative YAP regulator large tumor suppressor (LATS) kinase ( 3 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • BA enhances the levels of BAX and BCL-2 proteins but does not alter the levels of BCL-x S or BCL-x L . Ectopic expression of BCL-2 prevents BA-induced caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and cell death. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Induction of the HMG-CoA synthase promoter required a binding site for sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SRE-BP), consistent with a key role for these transcription factors in the induction of this gene network. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The tumor suppressor Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a member of the Kruppel-like zinc finger transcription factor family of proteins, which are involved in regulating differentiation, development, cellular proliferation, growth-related signal transduction, and apoptosis. (molvis.org)
  • Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • When PTPrho proteins are engineered with the different point mutations observed in cancer and then are expressed in non-adherent Sf9 cells, these cells do not mediate comparable levels of cell-cell aggregation to wild-type PTPrho, demonstrating that the mutations observed in cancer are loss of function mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is likely that T-cadherin regulates cell migration and phenotype via activation of small G-proteins with subsequent actin reorganization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several cell cycle regulatory functions may be mediated by Pur-alpha binding to Cyclin/Cdk protein kinases, which phosphorylate proteins regulating cell cycle transition points. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acting as a suppressor of RAS function, the protein enhances the weak intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins resulting in the inactive GDP-bound form of RAS, thereby allowing control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, these C-CDK complexes act as a kinase, phosphorylating and inactivating the protein of Rb and p-Rb related "pocket proteins" p107 and p130. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, CDK6 plays a role in the accumulation of the apoptosis proteins p53 and p130, this accumulation keeps cells from entering cell division if there is DNA damage, activating pro- apoptotic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Casein kinase 1 epsilon protein is part of the mammalian oscillator, a group of proteins that keep cells on a roughly 24-hour schedule. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, unlike most circadian rhythm proteins, casein kinase 1 epsilon is constitutively active. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important proteins which make up the mammalian TTNFL are the Period (PER), and Cryptochrome (CRY) proteins, BMAL1, CLOCK, and casein kinase 1 epsilon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The level of PER and CRY proteins is regulated by casein kinase 1 through phosphorylation, which marks these proteins for degradation by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Casein kinase 1 results in a cyclic expression of mammalian oscillator proteins, resulting in a timekeeper (mammalian oscillator) for the cell: In hamsters, the CK1ε-tau mutation was first discovered by Michael Menaker and colleagues while studying a laboratory shipment of Syrian hamsters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both pathways induce cell death by activating caspases, which are proteases, or enzymes that degrade proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two pathways both activate initiator caspases, which then activate executioner caspases, which then kill the cell by degrading proteins indiscriminately. (wikipedia.org)
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 are unrelated proteins, but both are normally expressed in the cells of breast and other tissue, where they help repair damaged DNA, or destroy cells if DNA cannot be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BARD1/BRCA1 interaction is disrupted by tumorigenic amino acid substitutions in BRCA1, implying that the formation of a stable complex between these proteins may be an essential aspect of BRCA1 tumor suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin is a small regulatory protein found in all tissues that direct proteins to compartments within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For details on the CCAAT motif in gene enhancers and on CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Proteins see the specific page. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which functions as a critical regulator of cell apoptosis, is thought to play an important role in neurological diseases such as AD [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We found that ERBB4 activated the transcriptional coactivator YAP, which promotes organ and tissue growth and is inhibited by the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • These observations connect the unusual nuclear function of a growth factor receptor with a mechanosensory pathway and suggest that NRG1-ERBB4-YAP signaling contributes to the aggressive behavior of tumor cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is thought to play a crucial role in GBM pathogenesis, initiating the early stages of tumor development, sustaining tumor growth, promoting infiltration, and mediating resistance to therapy. (pnas.org)
  • Genetically, Yorkie is the ultimate effector of the evolutionarily conserved Hippo tumor suppressor pathway ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the p53 pathway plays an important role in limiting the propagation of aneuploid human cells in culture to preserve the diploid karyotype of the population. (rupress.org)
  • These data fit with the concordance of aneuploidy and disruption of the p53 pathway in many tumors, but the presence of aneuploid cells in some normal human and mouse tissues indicates that there are known exceptions to the involvement of p53 in aneuploid cells and that tissue context may be important in how cells respond to aneuploidy. (rupress.org)
  • Neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells by 5,7-Dihydroxychromone: Activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. (cancerindex.org)
  • The APC binds to β-catenin, axin and glycogen synthase kinase 3β to form a large protein complex, in which β-catenin is phosphorylated and broken down, resulting in negative regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • Here, we report that p73 stability is directly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.We find that p300-mediated acetylation of p73 protects it against ubiquitinylation and that PML regulates p73 stability by positively modulating its acetylation levels.As a result, PML potentiates p73 transcriptional and proapoptotic activities that are markedly impaired in Pml-/- primary cells. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway by EGFR ligands is very different in time and amplitude than activation of this pathway by a constitutively active endogenous KRAS mutant protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This new role is associated with the balance of the oxidative and non-oxidative branches of the pentose pathway in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway is a known route altered in cancer cells, when there is an aberrant overexpression of CDK6 and CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the intrinsic pathway the cell kills itself because it senses cell stress, while in the extrinsic pathway the cell kills itself because of signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Overexpressing ERBB4 in cultured mammary epithelial cells or adding the ERBB4 ligand neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to breast cancer cell cultures promoted the expression of genes regulated by YAP, such as CTGF . (sciencemag.org)
  • The administration of ILY to ihCD59 + mice crossed with various Cre-driver lines resulted in the rapid and specific ablation of immune, epithelial, or neural cells without off-target effects. (jci.org)
  • Finally, the ILY/ihCD59-mediated cell-ablation method was tested in several disease models to study immune cell functionalities, hepatocyte and/or biliary epithelial damage and regeneration, and neural cell damage. (jci.org)
  • A plasmid containing KLF6 cDNA was used to increase the level of KLF6 protein in rat lens epithelial cells (rLEC) which can lead to consequent degradation of p21 and p27 kip1 . (molvis.org)
  • Desmoglein-2 is highly expressed in epithelial cells and cardiomyocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This second family member, desmoglein-2 is expressed in desmosome-containing tissues, such as cardiac muscle, colon, colon carcinoma, and other simple and stratified epithelial-derived cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Desmoglein-2 is an integral component of desmosomes, which are cell-cell junctions between epithelial, myocardial, and certain other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAP97 is expressed throughout the body in epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • The presence of full-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells decreases the level of free-cytosolic β-catenin, which consequently reduces the level of nuclear β-catenin and reduces the expression of the β-catenin-regulated genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase, (CDK) family, which includes CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • the cyclin D. The activity of this kinase first appears in mid-G1 phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits including D-type cyclins and members of INK4 family of CDK inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • CEBPA has been shown to interact with Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and Cyclin-dependent kinase 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine
  • The receptor tyrosine kinase ERBB4, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is unusual in that ERBB4 can undergo intramembrane proteolysis, releasing a soluble intracellular domain (ICD) that modulates transcription in the nucleus. (sciencemag.org)
  • The most common genetic abnormality in GBMs is the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), of which, aberrant expression of EGFR is the most frequent ( , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion of the second tyrosine phosphatase domain in colorectal cancer cells also reduces PTPrho catalytic activity, again demonstrating that the second phosphatase domain of PTPrho does regulate catalytic activity, either directly or indirectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • LDL binding to T-cadherin leads to the activation of Erk 1/2 tyrosine kinase and the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine kinases are enzymes that add phosphates to tyrosine residues, and are the opposing enzymes to PTPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTEN
  • During the same period, Wigler and Nikolai Lisitsyn developed the concept and applications of representational difference analysis, which led to their identification of new cancer genes, including the tumor suppressor PTEN, and by others the cancer virus-causing Kaposi's sarcoma, KSHV. (wikipedia.org)
  • serine
  • Upon Hippo signaling in mice, YAP is phosphorylated at a key serine (S127), confining it to the cytoplasm, where it can no longer function in target gene expression ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • NF2/merlin is phosphorylated on serine 518 by p21-activated kinase (PAK), a downstream effector of Rac1. (jneurosci.org)
  • The protein encoded by the casein kinase 1 epsilon gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase I protein family, whose members have been implicated in the control of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes, including DNA replication and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • glioma
  • Gene expression patterns elicited by the PDGF autocrine loop may also be influenced by interactions with other genes involved in glioma progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • deletion
  • Concomitant with EGFR gene amplification events is the occurrence of an intragenic in-frame deletion of exons 2−7 of the EGFR gene. (pnas.org)
  • Deletion of the p53 gene permits the accumulation of nondiploid cells such that CIN generates cells with aneuploid genomes that resemble many human tumors. (rupress.org)
  • chromosomal
  • BMSCs cultured in the presence of low Se concentrations (5-10 nM) show reduced expression of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs), thioredoxin reductases (TRRs) and other selenoproteins, as well as the appearance of micronuclei indicative of chromosomal damage [ 18 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 2001) Mutations in the APC tumor suppressor gene cause chromosomal instability. (springer.com)
  • The gene is overexpressed in cancers like lymphoma, leukemia, medulloblastoma and melanoma associated with chromosomal rearrangements. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Plasma membrane localization of the EGFR could be restored in vitro by suppressing receptor endocytosis through Rho kinase inhibition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mutation of NF2/merlin rescued the myelin deficit in Rac1-CKO mice in vivo and the shortened processes in cultured Rac1-CKO SCs in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • pKLF6 cDNA transfected cells showed less compared with control cells in vitro. (molvis.org)
  • Normal human somatic cells show virtually no spontaneous immortal transformation in vitro , whereas tumor tissues can give rise to cell lines of indefinite life span. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additionally, normal human somatic cells in vitro and in vivo show telomere loss with successive divisions (2) , whereas most human tumor tissues and cells display telomerase activity, and most cultured human tumor cells display stabilized telomere length. (aacrjournals.org)
  • STRADα stabilizes LKB1 protein both in vivo and in vitro, and is capable of eliciting multiple axons in mouse embryonic cortical cultured neurons when overexpressed with LKB1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though T-cadherin can mediate weak adhesion in aggregation assays in vitro, the lack of intracellular domain suggests that T-cadherin is not involved in stable cell-cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro studies in HL-1 cardiomyocytes have shown that inhibition of desmoglein-2 binding or mutation of desmoglein-2 protein (Ala517Val or Val920Gly) at cardiac intercalated discs results in a reduced strength of cell-cell contact, demonstrating that desmoglein-2 is critical for cardiomyocyte cohesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • p21 may also directly block DNA replication by inhibiting the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an essential DNA replication protein. (cshl.edu)
  • Neither proteolytic activation nor nuclear localization of SRE-BP was affected by disruption of the PDGF autocrine loop, indicating that PDGF signaling is required for other signaling events involved in activation of SRE-BP target genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • inhibition
  • The poor responsiveness of mutant KRAS tumor cells to EGFR inhibition and activation was accompanied by a reduced capacity of these cells to bind and internalize EGF and by a failure to retain EGFR at the plasma membrane. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Overcoming p57-mediated growth inhibition in these cells may be crucial for acquisition of the unlimited growth potential thought to be critical for malignant progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • RhoA/ROCK activation is necessary for cell contraction, stress fiber assembly and inhibition of spreading, while Rac is required for the formation of membrane protrusions and actin-rich lamellopodia at the leading edge of migrating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulator
  • Intermedilysin (ILY), a cytolytic pore-forming toxin that is secreted by Streptococcus intermedius , lyses human cells exclusively by binding to the human complement regulator CD59 (hCD59), but does not react with CD59 from nonprimates. (jci.org)
  • Because of its key role as a regulator of the cytoskeleton, we investigated the role of Rho kinase (ROCK), a major downstream effector of Rho, in Schwann cell morphology, differentiation, and myelination. (jneurosci.org)
  • intracellular localization
  • Because the presence of PTPkappa at the cell membrane was shown to sequester β-catenin to the plasma membrane, these data suggest that one mechanism whereby PTPkappa functions as a tumor suppressor is by regulating the intracellular localization of free-β-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • Two discoveries brought cell death from obscurity to a major field of research: identification of components of the cell death control and effector mechanisms, and linkage of abnormalities in cell death to human disease, in particular cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • Bhat RV, Baraban JM, Johnson RC, Eipper BA, Mains RE (1994) High levels of expression of the tumor suppressor gene APC during development of the rat central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • 1994) A targeted chain-termination mutation in the mouse Apc gene results in multiple intestinal tumors. (springer.com)
  • In 1994, Matthew Meyerson and Ed Harlow investigated the product of a close analogous gene of CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four years later, after an international race to find it, the gene was cloned in 1994 by scientists at University of Utah, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and Myriad Genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • The human CK1ε was first isolated and cloned in 1995, officially identified as an isoform of the casein kinase 1 family. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • In cultured ES cells, YAP is highly expressed ( 8 ) and required for self-renewal and suppression of differentiation ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are thought to contribute to the development of osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) [ 15 , 16 , 17 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • However, in most prokaryotes, NDPK expression levels are involved in the cell growth, development and differentiation of the organism, especially bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of certain Blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha's role during granulocyte differentiation and CEBPA's role as a tumor suppressor gene is critically important in the prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • However, aneuploid cell lines isolated from tumors grow efficiently in culture, indicating that they have overcome this limitation. (rupress.org)
  • The adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene is mutated in familial adenomatous polyposis and in sporadic colorectal tumors. (springer.com)
  • Most of the mutated Apc genes in colorectal tumors lack β-catenin-binding regions and fail to inhibit Wnt signaling, leading to overproliferation of tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • Most colorectal tumors are initiated by inactivating mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The presence of activating mutations in the KRAS gene in these tumors is a reliable predictor of tumor resistance to anti-EGFR therapy [ 13,14 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Analysis of an expression databank derived from human glial tumors ( n = 77) identified a subgroup exhibiting a profile consistent with PDGF dependence, including increased expression of SRE-BP target genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the genes regulated by PDGF autocrine signaling in glial tumors remain unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemotherapeutic drugs have a hard time penetrating tumors to kill them at their core because these cells may lack a good blood supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work led to the first successful sequence-based analysis of the genomes of single cancer cells from tumors by Wigler's then-graduate student Nick Navin, and subsequently, tumor cells in circulation by Wigler's collaborator Jim Hicks. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • From a molecular standpoint, GBMs are a highly heterogeneous tumor with multiple signaling pathways differentially activated or silenced with converging and parallel complex interactions ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • We also show that EGFR-mediated tumor formation is accompanied by the activation of canonical and unexpected signaling pathways. (pnas.org)
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
  • Wigler's laboratory was the first to demonstrate that some regulatory pathways have been so conserved in evolution that yeast can be used as a host to study the function of mammalian genes and in particular genes involved in signal transduction pathways and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • More recently, the newly discovered PDGF-C and PDGF-D subunits were also shown to be expressed at high frequency in glioblastoma-derived cell lines and primary human tumor tissues ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • mice
  • Here, we took advantage of this feature of ILY and developed a model of conditional and targeted cell ablation by generating floxed STOP- CD59 knockin mice ( ihCD59 ), in which expression of human CD59 only occurs after Cre-mediated recombination. (jci.org)
  • In organized studies of new treatments for cancer, the pre-clinical development of drugs, devices, and techniques begins in laboratories, either with isolated cells or in small animals, most commonly rats or mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mice exhibited white plaque-like lesions in cardiac muscle as early as 2 weeks, displaying a cardiac phenotype by 4 weeks that involved loss of viable cardiomyocytes and heavy cell calcification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice generated from these ES cells were viable, suggesting that PTPkappa phosphatase activity is not necessary for embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice in which the SAP97 gene has been knocked out die perinatally, have a cleft palate, and deficiencies in renal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • allele
  • DNA and RNA analysis of mass populations and individual subclones of conditionally immortal HMEC line 184A1 showed that continued growth of conditionally immortal cells with critically short telomeres was repeatedly accompanied by loss of the expressed p57 allele and transient expression of the allele imprinted previously. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The p57 gene has been found to be imprinted with preferential expression of the maternal allele (9) , suggesting that loss of the maternal allele by itself may severely reduce p57 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • AMPK
  • However, consumption of ATP would definitely influence the cellular energy balance, which brings upon the regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • In response to extrinsic cues, embryonic epidermal cells either stratify to produce the protective barrier at the skin surface or invaginate to form hair follicles (HFs) ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • interacts
  • PTPrho protein mediates homophilic cell-cell adhesion, meaning that when it interacts with a like molecule on an adjacent cell it induces the cells to bind or adhere to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPkappa interacts by co-immunoprecipitation with E-cadherin, α-catenin and β-catenin in pancreatic acinar cells prior to the dissolution of adherens junctions in a rat model of pancreatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • The Apc gene product (APC), basically a cytoplasmic protein, blocks cell cycle progression and plays crucial roles in development. (springer.com)
  • Expression of PDGF-A is increased in glioblastoma ( 10 ), suggesting a specific role in tumor progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cellular growth control is regulated by a group of conserved CDKs, 3 which govern entry into and progression through the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thought to play a biological role in controlling cell growth and progression of various cancers. (mybiosource.com)
  • CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression in the point of regulation named R or restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial
  • The mechanisms involved are poorly understood but are likely to involve coordinated changes in the glial cell cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • These dramatic morphogenetic events are likely to reflect major changes in the organization of the glial cell actin cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cultured neoplastic glial cells are rather resistant to most proapoptotic stimuli ( Weller, 1996 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • vivo
  • In vivo T-cadherin was detected on the apical cell surface of the chick interstinal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • After moving to CSHL, Wigler continued his studies of gene transfer into mammalian cells, exploring the integration of foreign DNA and its stability of expression in host cells, demonstrating the inheritance of DNA methylation patterns, and isolating the first vertebrate genes, and first human oncogenes, using DNA transfer and genetic selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells, cell cycle is activated by CDK6 in the early G1 phase through interactions with cyclins D1, D2 and D3. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is a major component of the mammalian oscillator which controls cellular circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daily oscillations in protein and mRNA transcription have been observed in many cells, including the mammalian master clock known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Hart MJ, de los Santos R, Albert IN, Rubinfeld B, Polakis P (1998) Down regulation of beta-catenin by human Axin and its association with the APC tumor suppressor, beta-catenin and GSK3 beta. (springer.com)
  • The p53 tumor suppressor gene ( TP53 ) is the most frequently altered gene in human cancer and also is found mutated in human gliomas. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A clonal population of human somatic cells is unlikely to accumulate a sufficient number of errors required for tumorigenicity within the 50-100 population doubling limit that replicative senescence imposes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Protein kinase LYK5, also known as LYK5 or STRADα, is a human protein and also denotes the gene encoding it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the identification of a Pur factor, which specifically bound a purine-rich sequence in the control region of the c-MYC gene, the gene, PURA, encoding the protein, Pur-alpha, was cloned and sequenced for both human and mouse (GenBank U02098.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • BRCA1 and BRCA1 (/ˌbrækəˈwʌn/) are a human gene and its protein product, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidermal
  • This subgroup displayed an absence of epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification, decreased incidence of allelic loss of 10q, increased frequency of TP53 mutations and allelic losses of 1p and 19q, and longer patient survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PMID
  • PMID 6251468 Commercial application of these discoveries follows from Axel-Wigler-Silverstein patent application (U.S. 4,399,216) filed February 20, 1980, entitled, "Process for Inserting DNA into Eucaryotic Cells and for Producing Proteinaceous Materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • The gene was later mapped and identified by Joseph Takahashi and colleagues, which revealed a single base-pair C-to-T substitutional mutation in the hamster CK1ε gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation of the CEBPA gene has been shown to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • subfamily
  • PTPrho does not bind to other subfamily members to mediate cell-cell aggregation, similar to other type R2B subfamily members. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, four desmoglein subfamily members have been identified and all are members of the cadherin cell adhesion molecule superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Nucleoside-diphosphate kinases (NDPKs, also NDP kinase, (poly)nucleotide kinases and nucleoside diphosphokinases) are enzymes that catalyze the exchange of terminal phosphate between different nucleoside diphosphates (NDP) and triphosphates (NTP) in a reversible manner to produce nucleotide triphosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Our findings demonstrate that PML plays a crucial role in modulating p73 function, thus providing further insights on the molecular network for tumor suppression. (nih.gov)
  • EGFR
  • Studies of the activation of signaling events in these GBM tumor cells revealed notable differences between wild-type and vIII EGFR-expressing cells. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings provide critical insights into the role of mutant EGFR signaling function in GBM tumor biology and set the stage for testing of targeted therapeutic agents in the preclinical models described herein. (pnas.org)
  • During EGFR locus amplification, a portion of the amplicon rearranges to produce EGFRvIII, leading to the coexpression of WT and vIII within the same cells. (pnas.org)
  • Alternatively, if the rearrangement occurs early during the amplification process, most cells will express the vIII variant predominantly with very little if any WT EGFR. (pnas.org)
  • Resensitization was accompanied by an acquired dependency on the EGFR for maintaining basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)