• urine
  • After the reabsorption of certain substances elsewhere in the kidney, the liquid is transported to the bladder as urine. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The evolution of the vertebrate kidney records three occasions, each separated by about 50 million years, when fish have abandoned glomeruli to produce urine by tubular mechanisms. (physiology.org)
  • The recurring dismissal of glomeruli suggests a mechanism of aglomerular urine formation intrinsic to renal tubules. (physiology.org)
  • The main function of the glomerulus is to filter plasma to produce glomerular filtrate, which passes down the length of the nephron tubule to form urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another study, Murray collected urine samples from 25 West Nile survivors and found that five had viral RNA in their urine, well after they had been infected, suggesting that the virus might have established itself in the kidneys. (scitechdaily.com)
  • In order to examine whether the virus actually harms the kidneys over time, the researchers looked for indicators of long-term kidney disease in urine samples of 139 people. (scitechdaily.com)
  • This stage is characterised by slowly progressive kidney dysfunction, with relatively bland urine sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein loss in the urine due to damage to the glomeruli may become massive, and cause a low serum albumin with resulting generalized body swelling (edema) and result in the nephrotic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes damage the kidney's glomeruli (networks of tiny blood vessels), which leads to the hallmark feature of albumin in the urine (called albuminuria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nephrons, the urine-producing functional structures of the kidney, span the cortex and medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cystinuria is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by high concentrations of the amino acid cystine in the urine, leading to the formation of cystine stones in the kidneys, ureter, and bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sign and symptoms consist of 1) hematuria- blood in the urine, 2) flank pain - pain in the side due to kidney pain, 3) renal colic - intense, cramping pain due to stones in the urinary tract, 4) obstructive uropathy- urinary tract disease due to obstruction, and 5) urinary tract infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the levels of cystine in the urine increase, the crystals typical of cystinuria are able to form, resulting in kidney stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cystinuria is characterized by the inadequate reabsorption of cystine in the proximal convoluted tubules after the filtering of the amino acids by the kidney's glomeruli, thus resulting in an excessive concentration of this amino acid in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cystine may precipitate out of the urine, if the urine is neutral or acidic, and form crystals or stones in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • MICROSCOPY
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although glass slides were not available for direct comparison to whole slide image annotation, this study indicates that routine manual light microscopy assessment of number of glomeruli is inaccurate, and the magnitude of this error is proportional to the total number of glomeruli. (gwu.edu)
  • Humans
  • In humans, mRNA for EP4 has been detected by Northern bloting in the heart and small intestine and to lesser extents in lung, kidney, thymus, uterus, dorsal root ganglions, and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the kidneys are located high in the abdominal cavity, one on each side of the spine, and lie in a retroperitoneal position at a slightly oblique angle. (wikipedia.org)
  • vasculature
  • Eliminating either PDGFRB, or PDGF-B reduces the number of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, and thereby compromises the integrity and/or functionality of the vasculature in multiple organs, including the brain, heart, kidney, skin and eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • However, once a stone is formed, or if stone production is severe or frequent, symptoms may be present:[citation needed] Nausea/vomiting Dull ache or "colicky" pain Chronic pain Hematuria Obstructive syndromes like hydronephrosis Infective syndromes like pyelonephritis Cystinurics can also experience chronic pain in one, or both, kidneys due to the scars that the jagged edges of the stones can leave or damage from multiple stone removal surgeries. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In this situation, the kidney supplied blood by the narrowed renal artery suffers from inadequate blood flow, which in turn causes the size of the kidneys to decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The aim of this study is to determine the number of glomeruli and percent globally sclerotic in renal biopsies by means of registration of serial tissue sections and manual enumeration, compared to the numbers in pathology reports from routine light microscopic assessment. (gwu.edu)
  • The kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule, which is itself surrounded by perirenal fat, renal fascia, and pararenal fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Researchers are investigating the hypothesis that even mild infections might leave another lasting problem, kidney disease. (scitechdaily.com)
  • It could be a worrisome development, states Kristy Murray, an epidemiologist at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, who hasn't yet confirmed that kidney disease persists long after a West Nile infection. (scitechdaily.com)
  • In July she reported that 40% of that group showed the signs of long-term kidney disease. (scitechdaily.com)
  • She has yielded a number of discoveries in basic biomedical research including: mechanisms of kidney disease, organization of functions that attach cells to one another, and mechanisms of secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lupus nephritis (also known as SLE nephritis) is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease, is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a disease involving the defective transepithelial transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids in the kidney and intestine, and is one of many causes of kidney stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertensive nephropathy refers to kidney failure that can be attributed to a history of hypertension It is a chronic condition and it is a serious risk factor for the development of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to a build-up of plaques and they can be deposited in the renal arteries causing stenosis and ischemic kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic hypertension with progressive kidney disease progresses over a long period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Via one or more of these mechanisms, the kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Glomerulus (/ɡləˈmɛr(j)ələs, ɡloʊ-/) is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • arteries
  • In the kidneys, as a result of benign arterial hypertension, hyaline (pink, amorphous, homogeneous material) accumulates in the walls of small arteries and arterioles, producing the thickening of their walls and the narrowing of the arterial openings, a process known as arteriolosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • The function of the glomeruli is to filter waste products from the blood. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This provides tighter control over the blood flow through the glomerulus, since arterioles dilate and constrict more readily than venules, owing to their thick circular smooth muscle layer (tunica media). (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for HN include poorly controlled moderate to high blood pressure, older age, other kidney disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • and Afro-Caribbean background - unclear whether this is due to them being more genetically susceptible to kidney damage by hypertension or whether it is because of poor management of high blood pressure amongst them. (wikipedia.org)
  • efferent
  • The resistance of the efferent arterioles causes sufficient hydrostatic pressure within the glomerulus to provide the force for ultrafiltration. (wikipedia.org)
  • urinary
  • Result: Under the light microscope, the kidney in experimental group show the many anatomical changes as increase in Wight, elongated and increase in width, and showed many histological changes as a glomerular enlargement with decrease of urinary space and dilation in proximal and distal tubule. (journalijar.com)
  • Urology addresses diseases of kidney (and urinary tract) anatomy: these include cancer, renal cysts, kidney stones and ureteral stones, and urinary tract obstruction. (wikipedia.org)